Determining the factors controlling the chemical composition of groundwater using multivariate statistics and geochemical methods in the Xiqu coal mine, North China

  • Jiutan Liu
  • Yaojun Hao
  • Zongjun GaoEmail author
  • Min Wang
  • Manxi Liu
  • Zhenyan Wang
  • Shu Wang
Original Article


Studying the hydrogeochemical processes that control groundwater quality in different aquifers helps to identify the sources of inrush water into coal mines. In this paper, 65 mine water samples were collected from Xiqu coal mine during 2016 and 2017 to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and controlling factors of mine water using hydrochemical methods and multivariate statistical analysis. The mine water is acidic to alkaline in nature. The dominant anions in the mine water are SO42− and HCO3, and cations were dominated by Ca2+ Na+, and Mg2+. The dominant  hydrochemical facies of groundwater were SO4–Na·Ca and SO4–Ca·Mg water types. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, four principal components and two clusters were obtained. Concentrations of SO42− showed significant positive correlations with Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+, and strong negative correlations with HCO3 and pH. The mine water chemistry was dominated by the oxidation of iron-bearing sulfide minerals, cation exchange and the dissolution of silicate, carbonate and sulfate minerals. In addition, human activities such as agriculture are also likely to have influences groundwater chemistry at the mine site.


Xiqu coal mine Mine water chemistry Hydrogeochemical processes Multivariate statistics 



This research was supported by the Xiqu Coal Mine, XiShan Coal Electricity Group Co., Ltd. The authors sincerely thank editor and reviewers for reviewing the manuscript.


  1. Atanackovic N, Dragisic V et al (2013) Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites; in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(11):7615–7626. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barzegar R, Moghaddam AA, Tziritis E et al (2017) Identification of hydrogeochemical processes and pollution sources of groundwater resources in the Marand plain, northwest of Iran. Environ Earth Sci 76(7):297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Huang XJ, Wang GC, Liang XY et al (2018) Hydrochemical and stable isotope (δD and δ18 O) characteristics of groundwater and hydrogeochemical processes in the Ningtiaota coalfield, Northwest China. Mine Water Environ 37:119–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Huisamen A, Wolkersdorfer C (2016) Modelling the hydrogeochemical evolution of mine water in a decommissioned opencast coal mine. Int J Coal Geol 164:3–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lang YC, Liu CQ, Zhao ZQ et al (2006) Geochemistry of surface and ground water in Guiyang, China: water/rock interaction and pollution in a karst hydrological system. Appl Geochem 21(6):887–903. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Li PY (2018) Mine water problems and solutions in China. Mine Water Environ 37:217–221. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Li PY, Qian H, Wu JH et al (2013) Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater in the Dongsheng coalfield, Ordos Basin, China. Mine Water Environ 32:195–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li PY, Wu JH, Qian H (2016) Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and the major influencing factors: a case study in and around Hua County, China. Arab J Geosci 9:15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li PY, Wu JH, Tian R et al (2018) Geochemistry, hydraulic connectivity and quality appraisal of multilayered groundwater in the Hongdunzi coal mine, Northwest China. Mine Water Environ 37:222–237. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu JT, Gao ZJ, Wang M et al (2018) Study on the dynamic characteristics of groundwater in the valley plain of Lhasa City. Environ Earth Sci 77:646. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu JT, Gao ZJ, Wang M et al (2019) Hydrochemical characteristics and possible controls in the groundwater of the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, China. Environ Earth Sci 78:76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ma FS, Wei AH, Deng QH et al (2014) Hydrochemical characteristics and the suitability of groundwater in the coastal region of Tangshan, China. J Earth Sci 25(06):1067–1075. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mahato MK, Singh PK, Singh AK, Tiwari AK (2018) Assessment of hydrogeochemical processes and mine water suitability for domestic, irrigation, and industrial purposes in East Bokaro coalfield, India. Mine Water Environ 37:493–504. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nordstrom DK (2011) Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters. Appl Geochem 26(11):1777–1791. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nyirenda TM, Zhou J, Mapoma HWT et al (2016) Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater at the Xikuangshan antimony mine in South China. Mine Water Environ 35(1):86–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qian JZ, Tong Y, Ma L et al (2018) Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater source identification of a multiple aquifer system in a coal mine. Mine Water Environ 37:528–540. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Singh A, Varma N, Mondal G (2016) Hydrogeochemical investigation and quality assessment of mine water resources in the Korba coalfield, India. Arab J Geosci 9(4):278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sun WJ, Wu Q, Liu HL, Jiao J (2015) Prediction and assessment of the disturbances of the coal mining in Kailuan to karst groundwater system. Phys Chem Earth 89–90:136–144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tiwari AK, Ghione R, Maio MD, Lavy M (2017) Evaluation of hydrogeochemical processes and groundwater quality for suitability of drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study in the Aosta Valley region, Italy. Arab J Geosci 10(12):264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Xu K, Dai GL, Duan Z, Xue XY (2018) Hydrogeochemical evolution of an ordovician limestone aquifer influenced by coal mining: a case study in the Hancheng mining area, China. Mine Water Environ 37(2):238–248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yang QC, Li ZJ, Ma HY et al (2016) Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes and assessment of groundwater quality using classic integrated geochemical methods in the Southeastern part of Ordos basin, China. Environ Pollut 218:879–888. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yang YG, Meng ZL, Jiao WT (2018) Hydrological and pollution processes in mining area of Fenhe River Basin in China. Environ Pollut 234:743–750. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zakir HM, Islam MM, Arafat MY, Sharmin S (2013) Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of waters of an open coal mine area in a developing country: a case study from Barapukuria, Bangladesh. Int J Geosci Res 1(1):20–44Google Scholar
  24. Zhao L, Qin Y, Cai CF et al (2017) Control of coal facies to adsorption-desorption divergence of coals: a case from the Xiqu Drainage area, Gujiao CBM Block, North China. Int J Coal Geol 171:169–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiutan Liu
    • 1
  • Yaojun Hao
    • 2
  • Zongjun Gao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Min Wang
    • 1
  • Manxi Liu
    • 1
  • Zhenyan Wang
    • 1
  • Shu Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Earth Science and EngineeringShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Xiqu Coal Mine, XiShan Coal Electricity Group Co, Ltd.TaiyuanChina

Personalised recommendations