Advertisement

Use of a modified chloride mass balance technique to assess the factors that influence groundwater recharge rates in a semi-arid agricultural region in China

  • Wei XuEmail author
  • Lingjun Meng
  • Pai Liu
  • Kebao DongEmail author
Original Article
  • 91 Downloads

Abstract

The groundwater recharge potential in the West Liaohe Plain in northeast China was assessed using a modified chloride mass balance method to estimate the vertical infiltration of water through typical soil profiles at two study sites in the region: the Horqin Left Middle Banner (KZ) site and the Kailu County (KL) site. Samples of precipitation, groundwater, and soil water were collected at the KZ and KL sites to determine the effects of irrigation and soil texture on water infiltration in soil profiles. The results showed that the water infiltration rate at the KZ site is approximately 6–11 mm/a beneath farmland, with similar infiltration rates for mulched drip irrigation and flood irrigation methods, but the infiltration coefficient with a mulch cover was slightly higher than that of soils without a mulch cover. The infiltration rate in soils at the KL site was determined to be 25–41 mm/a beneath farmland and in this area the infiltration rate and infiltration coefficient in soils with a mulch cover were much higher than in soils without a mulch cover. Additionally, the infiltration rate and infiltration coefficient in sandy-textured soils at the KL site were higher than in clayey soils at the KZ site. The infiltration rate in bare land at the KL site with a similar soil texture to that of the farmland was determined to be approximately 16 mm/a, or approximately one-half the infiltration rate measured beneath the farmland. Water infiltration rates in cultivated soils were higher than those beneath non-cultivated areas; however, this does not mean that the actual groundwater recharge rate increased. The amount of irrigation water used is lower using mulched drip irrigation than in fields irrigated using flood irrigation, but the infiltration coefficient actually increased. This suggests that the mulched drip irrigation method can increase groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions such as the study area.

Keywords

Irrigation methods Chloride mass balance Groundwater recharge Semi-arid region Northeast China 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for the helpful comments, which improved the quality of the manuscript. This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant Number 41602247 and Scientific Research Foundation for Young core teachers of Shenyang Institute of Technology, Grant Number QN201713. The authors also acknowledge the help from Dr. Wenzhen Yuan and the Project of Investigation and Evaluation of Geothermal Resources in Zhangjiakou Area (No. DD20190129).

References

  1. Allison GB, Hughes MW (1978) The use of environmental chloride and tritium to estimate total recharge to an unconfined aquifer. Aust J Soil Res 16:181–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison GB, Stone WJ, Hughes MW (1985) Recharge in karst and dune elements of a semi-arid landscape as indicated by natural isotopes and chloride. J Hydrol 76:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benjamin H (2015) Hydrochemical and 14C constraints on groundwater recharge and interbasin flow in an arid watershed Tule Desert, Nevada Benjamin Hagedorn. J Hydrol 523:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Böhmelt T, Bernauer T, Buhaug H, Gleditsch NP, Tribaldos T, Wischnath G (2014) Demand, supply, and restraint: determinants of domestic water conflict and cooperation. Global Environ Change 29:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brauman KA, Freyberg DL, Daily GC (2012) Land cover effects on groundwater recharge in the tropics: ecohydrologic mechanisms. Ecohydrology 5:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bresciani E, Ordens CM, Werner AD, Batelaan O, Guan H, Post VEA (2014) Spatial variability of chloride deposition in a vegetated coastal area: implications for groundwater recharge estimation. J Hydrol 519:1177–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Churchill KA, Sze H (1984) Anion-sensitive, H + -pumping atpase in membrane vesicles from oat roots direct effects of Cl − , NO3 − , and a Disulfonic Stilbene. Plant Physiol 76:490–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper JD, Gardner CMK, MacKenzie N (1990) Soil controls on recharge to aquifers. J Soil Sci 41:613–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deng X, Shan L, Zhang H, Turner NC (2006) Improving agricultural water use efficiency in arid and semiarid areas of China. Agric Water Manage 80:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edmunds WM, Walton NRG (1980) A geochemical and isotopic approach to recharge evaluation in semi-arid zones—past and present. In: Fontes JC (ed) Arid-zone hydrology: investigations with isotope techniques. Proceeding of Advisory Group Meeting, Vienna, pp 47–68Google Scholar
  11. Eriksson E, Khunakasem V (1969) Chloride concentrations in groundwater recharge rate and rate of deposition of chloride in the Israel coastal plain. J Hydrol 7(2):178–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. He J, Bian X, Fu Y, Qin Y (2012) Research on the comprehensive evaluation of west Liaohe river plain irrigation regions. China Rural Water Hydropower 11:150–153 (Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  13. Hu Q, Yang Y, Han S (2017) Identifying changes in irrigation return flow with gradually intensified water-saving technology using HYDRUS for regional water resources management. Agric Water Manage 194(Supplement C):33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang T, Pang Z (2011) Estimating groundwater recharge following land-use change using chloride mass balance of soil profiles: a case study at guyuan and xifeng in the loess plateau of china. Hydrogeol J 19(19):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang T, Pang Z, Liu J, Yin L, Edmunds WM (2017) Groundwater recharge in an arid grassland as indicated by soil chloride profile and multiple tracers. Hydrol Processes 31(5):1047–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jin X, Chen M, Fan Y, Yan L, Wang F (2018) Effects of mulched drip irrigation on soil moisture and groundwater recharge in the Xiliao River Plain, China. Water 10:1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ju Z, Li X, Hu C (2016) Water dynamics and groundwater recharge in a deep vadose zone. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 16(3):579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaown D, Koh DC, Mayer B, Lee KK (2009) Identification of nitrate and sulfate sources in groundwater using dual stable isotope approaches for an agricultural area with different land use (Chuncheon, mid-eastern Korea). Agric Ecosys Environ 132:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kitching R, Shearer TR, Shedlock SL (1977) Recharge to Bunter Sandstone determined from lysimeters. J Hydrol 33(3–4):217–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lenhart T, Eckhardt K, Fohre RN, Frede HG (2002) Comparison of two different approaches of sensitivity analysis. Phys Chem Earth 27:645–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li JF, Guo PC, Wang DQ (1989) Effects of chlorine on growth, yield and quality of soybean. Chin J Soil Sci 20(2):80–84 (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  22. Li Z, Chen X, Liu W, Si B (2017) Determination of groundwater recharge mechanism in the deep loessial unsaturated zone by environmental tracers. Sci Total Environ 586:827–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu CS, Li XS (1996) The nutritive functions and poison of chlorine on plants and rational application of chlorine fertilizer. J Shandong Agric Univ 27(1):118–121 (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  24. Liu Z, Chen H, Huo Z, Wang F, Shock CC (2016) Analysis of the contribution of groundwater to evapotranspiration in an arid irrigation district with shallow water table. Agric Water Manage 171:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Macdonald DMJ, Edmunds WM (2014) Estimation of groundwater recharge in weathered basement aquifers, southern Zimbabwe: a geochemical approach. Appl Geochem 42(4):86–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marek TH, Schneider AD, Howell TA (1988) Design and construction for large weighting monolithic lysimters. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 31(2):477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Méjean P, Pinti DL, Larocque M, Ghaleb B, Meyzonnat G, Gagné S (2016) Processes controlling 234U and 238U isotope fractionation and helium in the groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec: the potential role of natural rock fracturing. Appl Geochem 66:198–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pasini S, Torresan S, Rizzi J, Zabeo A, Critto A, Marcomini A (2012) Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 440:219–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qiu J (1992) Study of zero flux surface on unsaturated soil water. J Hydraul Eng 5:27–32 (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  30. Rao W, Jin K, Jiang S, Tan H, Han L, Tang Q (2015) Chemical and strontium isotopic characteristics of shallow groundwater in the Ordos Desert Plateau, North China: implications for the dissolved Sr source and water–rock interactions. Chem Erde-Geochem 75:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Richards LA, Gardner WR, Ogata G (1956) Physical processes determining water loss from soil. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 20:310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Stonestrom DA, Prudic DE, Dennehy KF (2005) Impact of land use and land cover change on groundwater recharge and quality in the southwestern US. Glob Change Biol 11(10):1577–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Su X, Xu W, Yang F, Zhu P (2015) Using new mass balance methods to estimate gross surface water and groundwater exchange with naturally occurring tracer 222Rn in data poor regions: a case study in northwest China. Hydrol Process 29(6):979–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun S, Wang Y, Engel BA, Wu P (2016a) Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: a case study of grain in China. Sci Total Environ 550:871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sun ZY, Ma R, Wang YX (2016b) Using isotopic, hydrogeochemical tracer and temperature data to characterize recharge and flow paths in a complex karst groundwater flow system in Northern China. Hydrol J 24(6):1393–1412Google Scholar
  36. Tan XC, Wang G, Wang HJ (2018) Spatial evolution of groundwater recharge in the Northwest plains of Shandong under the influence of human factors. China Rural Water Hydropower 04:21–27 (Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  37. Tyler SW, Chapman JB, Conrad SH (1996) Soil-water flux in the southern Great Basin, United States: temporal and spatial variations over the last 120,000 years. Water Resour Res 32:1481–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang YB, Wu PT, Zhao XN, Engel BA (2014) Virtual water flows of grain within China and its impact on water resource and grain security in 2010. Ecol Eng 69:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu W, Su XS, Dai ZX, Yang FT, Zhu PC, Huang Y (2017a) Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Hydrogeol J 25(7):2015–2029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xu DP, Xue XJ, Zhu JW (2017b) Optimization of the development pattern of agriculture and animal husbandry in Tongliao based on the idea of sustainable development. J Xi’an Univ Technol 33(03):276–281 (Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  41. Xu W, Zhu PC, Yang FT (2019) Evaluation of groundwater recharge sources based on environmental tracers in an arid alluvial fan, NW China. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 319:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yang L, Yang YZ, Feng ZM, Zheng YN (2016) Effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption from 2000 to 2010 in the West Liaohe Plain, China. J Integr Agric 15(6):1407–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang Q, Mu H, Wang H, Ye X, Ma H, Martin JD (2018) Quantitative evaluation of groundwater recharge and evaporation intensity with stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in a semi-arid region, Northwest China. Hydrol Processes 9:1130–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang YQ, Wang JH, Chen JJ, Li MG (2017) Numerical study on the responses of groundwater and strata to pumping and recharge in a deep confined aquifer. J Hydrol 548:342–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou TT, Han DM, Song XF (2018) Water movement through unsaturated zones in the severe saline-alkali cotton fields in inland arid regions under water and salt regulation by drip irrigation. Resour Sci 40(4):818–828 (Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Water ConservancyShenyang Agricultural UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Shenyang Institute of TechnologyFushunChina

Personalised recommendations