Advertisement

Assessment of the use of a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier for nitrate removal from groundwater in the alluvial plain of the Dagu River, China

  • Qinghua Guan
  • Fulin LiEmail author
  • Xuequn Chen
  • Chanjuan Tian
  • Caihong Liu
  • Dan Liu
Original Article
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

Groundwater in a shallow aquifer used for potable supply in Qingdao, China, has been contaminated by nitrate by the excessive use of chemical fertilisers for vegetable production in the area. In this study, a representative site was selected to construct a non-continuous permeable reactive barrier (PRB) back-filled with a mixed reactive medium containing of zero-valent iron, activated carbon and medium- to coarse-grained sand. The PRB consists of alternate well and pillars and was constructed to provide a funnel and gate treatment system for two pumping wells. Groundwater monitoring during a trial of the system indicated that the concentrations of nitrate in monitoring wells within the treatment system rapidly declined (within a day) from about 120 mg/L to 20 mg/L. Reductions in nitrate concentrations were also observed in the pumping wells and downgradient monitoring wells, but changes in nitrate concentrations were moderated by mixing with contaminated groundwater. The PRB construction technique of using alternative wells and pillars combined with jet grouting was found to be effective for nitrate removal from groundwater at a small scale.

Keywords

Nitrate removal Permeable reactive barrier Funnel-and-gate system Zero-valent iron Backfill Jet grouting 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China Science and technology promotion project (SF-201624), The National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0400905), and Water Resources Research Project of Shandong Province (SDSLKY201809).

References

  1. Adekunle IM, Adetunji MT, Gbadebo AM et al (2007) Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in Southwest Nigeria. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4(4):307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelopoulos K, Spiliopoulos IC, Mandoulaki A, Theodorakopoulou A, Kouvelas A (2009) Groundwater nitrate pollution in northern part of Achaia Prefecture. Desalination 248(2):852–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Costa JL, Massone H, Martinez D, Suero EE, Vidal CM, Bedmar F (2002) Nitrate contamination of a rural aquifer and accumulation in the unsaturated zone. Agric Water Manag 57(1):33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elmidaoui A, Elhannouni F, Sahli MA, Chay L, Elabbassi H, Hafsi M, Largeteau D (2001) Pollution of nitrate in Moroccan ground water: removal by electrodialysis. Desalination 136:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Espejoherrera N, Cantor K P, Malats N et al (2015) Nitrate in drinking water and bladder cancer risk in Spain. Environ Res 137:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fewtrell L (2004) Drinking-water nitrate, methemoglobinemia, and global burden of disease: a discussion. Environ Health Perspect 112(14):1371–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fan AM (2011) Nitrate and nitrite in drinking water: a toxicological review. Encycl Environ Health.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-52272-6.00563-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goss MJ, Barry DAJ, Rudolph DL (1998) Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture: 1. Results from drinking water wells. J Contam Hydrol 32(3–4):267–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gu B, Liang L, Dickey MJ, Yin AX, Dai S (1998) Reductive precipitation of uranium(VI) by zero-valent iron. Environ Sci Technol 32(21):3366–3373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hiscock KM, Lloyd JW, Lerner DN, Carey MA (1989) An engineering solution to the nitrate problem of a borehole at Swaffham, Norfolk, UK. J Hydrol 107:267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kacaroglu F, Gunay G (1997) Groundwater nitrate pollution in an alluvium aquifer, Eskişehir urban area and its vicinity, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 31(3–4):178–184Google Scholar
  12. Kostraba JN, Rewers M, Hamman RF (1992) Nitrate levels in community drinking waters and risk of IDDM: an ecological analysis. Diabetes Care 15(11):1505–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee J, Youm SY, Choi S, Oh B (2009) Removal of mixed contaminants by Fe0-based biobarrier in flow-through columns using recycled waste materials. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 11(3):214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lin HT, Jiang LH, Song XZ, Zheng FL, Tan DS, Gao XH, Liu ZH (2011) Nitrate concentration of groundwater and Its affecting factors in Shandong Province, China. J Agro-Environ Sci 30(2):353–357Google Scholar
  15. Liu CH, Li FL, Chen XQ (2017) Effect of PRB on removal of nitrate from groundwater. Shandong Water Resour 10:59–60Google Scholar
  16. Ohannesin SF, Gillham RW (1998) Long-term performance of an in situ “Iron Wall” for remediation of VOCs. Ground Water 36(1):164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Puls RW, Paul CJ, Powell RM (1999) The application of in situ permeable reactive (zero-valent iron) barrier technology for the remediation of chromate-contaminated groundwater: a field test. Appl Geochem 14(8):989–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Smith RL, Miller DN, Brooks MH, Widdowson MA, Killingstad MW (2001) In situ stimulation of groundwater denitrification with formate to remediate nitrate contamination. Environ Sci Technol 35(1):196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Van Maanen JM, Van Dijk A, Mulder K, De Baets MH, Menheere PC, Der Heide DV et al (1994) Consumption of drinking water with high nitrate levels causes hypertrophy of the thyroid. Toxicol Lett 72:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Van Maanen JM, Albering HJ, Van Breda SG, Curfs DM, Ambergen AW, Wolffenbuttel BH et al (1999) Nitrate in drinking water and risk of childhood diabetes in The Netherlands. Diabetes Care 22(10):1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ward MH, Mark SD, Cantor KP, Weisenburger DD, Correavillasenor A (2000) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and nitrate in drinking water. J Epidemiol Community Health 54(10):772–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ward MH, Jones RR, Brender JD et al (2018) Drinking water nitrate and human health: an updated review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(7):1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu YH (2011) Progress of groundwater nitrate pollution and its alleviating methods in European and American countries. Chin Agric Sci Bull 27(8):284–290Google Scholar
  24. Zhang S (2002) Study on the trend of nitrate pollution of groundwater in the plain area of Tangshan. J Hydroelectr Eng 1:68–75Google Scholar
  25. Zhao TK, Zhang CJ, Du LF, Liu BC, An ZZ (2007) Investigation on nitrate concentration in Groundwater in seven provinces (cities) surrounding the Bohai Sea. J Agro-Environ Sci 26(2):779–783Google Scholar
  26. Zhao XC, Wang CJ, Meng CX (2008) Pollution of nitrate nitrogen in groundwater and its influencing factors in Qingdao City. J China Hydrol 28(5):94–96Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qinghua Guan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fulin Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xuequn Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chanjuan Tian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Caihong Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dan Liu
    • 3
  1. 1.Water Resources Research Institute of Shandong ProvinceJinanChina
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Resources and EnvironmentJinanChina
  3. 3.College of New Energy and EnvironmentJilin UniversityChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations