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Soil pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals around Douroud cement factory, Iran

  • Ali Jafari
  • Mansour GhaderpooriEmail author
  • Bahram Kamarehi
  • Hossein Abdipour
Original Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Industrial activates have contaminated the soils around the industries to some pollutants such as heavy metals. Nowadays, among the different industries, cement factories are of major environmental pollutant sources. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the soil pollution to heavy metals around Douroud cement factory in terms of geo-accumulation index, pollution index, and integrated pollution index. Also, a health-risk assessment was carried out. Sampling was performed at intervals of 500 m, 1250 m, and 2000 m from the factory site. Soil samplings were taken from the depths of 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm from the top surface. The health-risk assessment regarding soil around the factory was assessed based on the USEPA procedure. The study results showed that the average concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, lead and zinc in the soil around the cement factory were 115.77 mg/kg, 139.07 mg/kg, 80.47 mg/kg, 56.27 mg/kg, and 135.73 mg/kg, respectively. Also, the results showed that the concentration of the heavy metals in the top soil was significantly higher than subsurface sampling layers. Furthermore, the findings showed that the concentrations of all evaluated heavy metals were higher than the USEPA standard. The pollution index values in the soil around the cement factory were Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cr. Based on this study, the daily intake rate of all the elements by oral ingestion route was higher than the inhalation and dermal contact routes. The hazard quotient values of all metals in all studied sampling points were < 1.

Keywords

Health-risk assessment Soil pollution Cement factory Doroud Iran Heavy metals 

List of symbols

Igeo

Geo-accumulation index

Bn

The geochemical background concentration of the metal

Cn

The measured concentration of the metal in sediment

PI

The pollution index,

C

The concentration of each heavy metal (mg/kg)

B

The background value (mg/kg)

IPI

The mean values for all the PIs of all studied metals

RI

Computed as the sum of all 6 risk factors for heavy metals in soils,

Ei

The monomial potential ecological risk factor for individual factors

fi

The metal pollution factor

Ti

The metal toxic factor

Ci

The concentration of metal in the street dust

Cb

The reference value of a given metal

Cn

The concentration of each heavy metal in samples (mg/kg)

Bn

The background concentration (mg/kg)

ADing

The average daily intake of heavy metals ingested from soil (mg/kg-day)

ADinh

The average daily intake of heavy metals inhaled from soil (mg/kg-day)

ADder

The exposure dose via dermal contact from soil (mg/kg-day)

ABS

Absorption Factor

AF

Adherence Factor (mg/cm2)

AT

Averaging time (day)

BW

Body weight (kg)

CF

Conversion factor (kg/mg)

ED

Exposure duration (year)

EF

Exposure frequency (day/year)

PEF

Particle emission factor (m3/kg)

SA

Exposed skin surface area (cm2)

IRing

Ingestion rate (mg/day)

IRinh

Inhalation rate (mg/day)

HQ

Hazard quotient

HQing

Hazard quotient through inhalation pathway

HQinh

Hazard quotient through dermal contact pathway

HQtotal

Hazard quotient through all pathway

RfD

The corresponding reference doses

RfDinh

The corresponding reference dose through inhalation pathway

RfDder

The corresponding reference dose through dermal contact pathway

SF

The slope factor of the contaminant

SFinh

The slope factor of the contaminant through inhalation pathway

HI

Hazard index

ICP-OES

Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

USEPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors of this study are grateful for the funding of this research (project code: A-10-1412-3) by Lorestan University of Medical Sciences (LUMS).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Jafari
    • 1
  • Mansour Ghaderpoori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bahram Kamarehi
    • 1
  • Hossein Abdipour
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and NutritionLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran

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