Promotion of rice–duck integrated farming in the water source areas of Shanghai: its positive effects on reducing agricultural diffuse pollution

  • Qing Teng
  • Xue-Feng HuEmail author
  • Fan Luo
  • Jian Wang
  • Dong-mei Zhang
Original Article


The paper aims to study the effects of replacing the conventional rice farming by the rice–duck integrated organic farming on the reduction of agricultural diffuse pollution around Dianshan Lake in the suburbs of Shanghai, Southeast China. Agricultural activities of 21 rice farms in Jinze Town nearby Dianshan Lake were tracked and investigated for the consecutive 5 years, with the questionnaires on the inputs of agro-chemicals within the rice-growing seasons under the conventional rice farming in detail. The nutrient amounts discharged from the conventional rice fields were calculated and these from the rice–duck integrated organic farming potentially implemented surrounding the lake were also estimated. The quantities of N and P2O5 applied to the conventional paddy fields of the six towns surrounding the lake were 2.01 × 106 kg a− 1 and 4.59 × 105 kg a− 1 on annual average, respectively; these discharged into the environment were estimated to 1.48 × 105 kg a− 1 and 1.34 × 104 kg a− 1 on annual average, respectively. The quantities of herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides discharged from the conventional rice fields of the six towns were 1.67 × 104 kg a− 1 on annual average. The potential replacement of the conventional rice farming by the rice–duck integrated organic farming around the lake will reduce the amounts of N and P2O5 discharges through runoff and leaching by 83.79% and 92.11%, respectively, and completely prevent the diffuse pollution of biocides. The implementation of the rice–duck integrated organic farming around Dianshan Lake will not only be beneficial to lake protection, but also to raising the incomes of local farmers, and, thus, should be highly encouraged.


Conventional rice farming Rice–duck integrated farming N and P2O5 Diffuse pollution 



This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41130526 and 41471174), the Key Agricultural Technology Program of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (16391901500), Science and Technology Planning Project of Maoming (2017301), and Doctoral Science Foundation of Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology (2017rc10).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Teng
    • 1
  • Xue-Feng Hu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Fan Luo
    • 2
  • Jian Wang
    • 3
  • Dong-mei Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringGuangdong University of Petrochemical TechnologyMaomingChina
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Agricultural Technology Promotion and Service Center of Qingpu DistrictShanghaiChina

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