Advertisement

Responses of forest eco-service values to biotopes in the China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program

  • Wen-Ge Yuan
  • Jian-Wei Zheng
  • Jian-Cai GuEmail author
  • Gui-Qiao Lu
Original Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

The Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program is the largest ecological program of forest in China, which has significantly increased the forest coverage. However, it has been less effective than expected. Understanding the responding features of ecological benefits of forest to their biotopes, the relationships between the categories of ‘annual eco-service value of per unit area of forest’ (EV) and their biotope conditions is important for maximizing the ecological benefit of forest in the Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program. We analyzed the EV categories of three kinds of forest type in different biotopes, using the methods of ‘specifications for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China’. The result showed that the total EV (Tev) varied in the range of 2.6–8.0 e4 RMBs hm−2 a−1. The EV categories performed differently among the forest types and the biotopes. Water conservation EV was the highest and nutrient accumulation EV was the lowest in all the four types of biotopes. Correlations between EV categories and biotope indicators were also analyzed. The Tev of the ecological forest is mainly related to slope gradient, annual average temperature and latitude, which explained 20.1%, 14.3% and 12.6% of the variability of Tev, respectively. The Tev of the economic forest is mainly related to annual sunshine duration, altitude, slope gradient and annual average temperature, which explained 29.8%, 17.6%, 13.5% and 9.7% of the variability of Tev, respectively. The Tev of the shrubbery is associated with latitude and annual average temperature, which explained 49.9% and 22.6% of the variability of Tev, respectively.

Keywords

Biotope Forest type Eco-service value Response 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Hebei Provincial Science & Technology Supporting Program (no. 15227652D) and CFERN & BEJING TECHNO SOLUSIONS Award Funds on excellent academic achievements provided the Project support. The work was also guided by ‘Observation Methodology for Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research’ of National Standards of the People’s Republic of China (GB/T 33027-2016). We appreciate that Dr. Bing Wang, a researcher from Chinese Academy of Forestry provided some of the technical data. In addition, Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources of Forest and Forest Protection of Hebei Province should be credited for part of its Supporting. We also thank the journal reviewers for their detailed and the constructive comments on the manuscript.

Author contributions

All authors conceived the study performed research and analyzed data. W-GY wrote the paper.

Funding

Hebei Provincial Science & Technology Supporting Program (No.15227652D). CFERN & BEJING TECHNO SOLUSIONS Award Funds on excellent academic achievements.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Both at the time of conducting this research as well as at present, none declared by others.

Legal statement

All research work reported in this study was performed in accordance with all relevant legislation and guidelines.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This manuscript does not report on or involve the use of any animal or human data or tissue.

Consent for publication

This manuscript does not involve animal or human study. We understand that the text and any pictures published in the article will be freely available on the internet and may be seen by the public.

References

  1. Augustine NS, Michael JS (2005) Significance of temporal changes when designing a reservoir for conservation of dragonfly diversity. Biodivers Conserv 14(1):165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bi XL, Ge JP (2009) Vegetation water conservation effect in Jinghe river basin: an analysis based on topography and soil type. Chin J Ecol 28(01):95–101. http://www.cje.net.cn/EN/Y2009/V28/I01/95. Accessed 9 Feb 2017 (in Chinese with English abstract)
  3. Calder IR (2007) Forests and water-ensuring forest benefits outweigh water costs. For Ecol Manag 251:110–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao SX, Sun G, Zhang ZQ et al (2011) Greening China naturally. AMBIO 40(7):828–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. CFERN (2013) The technical standards and management regulations for the observation and evaluation of ecological effects in CCFP (in Chinese with English subtitles). In: The School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science (ed) Standards and regulations. CFERN. Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network, Beijing. https://www.cfern.org/portal/article/index/id/10705/page/1.html. Accessed 11 Jun 2017Google Scholar
  6. China’s State Council (2002) Regulations on conversion of cropland to forest. In: The Information Management Office of China's State Forestry Administration (ed) Forestation. Classification of regulations. China's State Forestry Administration, Beijing. http://www.forestry.gov.cn/main/3960/content-621602.html. Accessed 15 Nov 2017Google Scholar
  7. China’s State Forestry Administration (SFA) (2003) Indicators system for long-term observation of forest ecosystem (LY/T1606-2003). In: The Information Management Office of China's State Forestry Administration (ed) Forestry. Agriculture and forestry. China's State Forestry Administration, Beijing. http://sitewww.51zbz.net/biaozhun/31665.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  8. China’s State Forestry Administration (SFA) (2004) Special provisions of the state shrub land. State Forestry Administration Communique (in Chinese). http://www.forestry.gov.cn/portal/main/s/495/content-24327.html. Accessed 28 Sept 2017
  9. China’s State Forestry Administration (SFA) (2008) Specifications for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China (LY/T1721-2008). In: Forestry. Agriculture and forestry. http://aww.51zbz.net/biaozhun/31900.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2017
  10. China’s State Forestry Administration (SFA) (2011) Observation methodology for long-term forest ecosystem research (LY/T1952-2011). http://www.doc88.com/p-3505558517824.html. Accessed 3 Nov 2017
  11. China’s State Forestry Administration (SFA) (2013) State report on monitoring ecological effects in conversion of cropland to forest program. Chinese Forestry Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  12. China’s State Forestry Administration (SFA) (2014) State report on monitoring ecological effects in conversion of cropland to forest program. Chinese Forestry Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  13. Constanza R, D’Arge R, Groot RD et al (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eric G, Gianni BP, Patrik K et al (2016) The influence of site characteristics on the leaf-to-sapwood area relationship in chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.). Trees 30(6):2217–2226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gibbon A, Silman MR, Malhi Y et al (2010) Ecosystem carbon storage across the grassland-forest transition in the High Andes of Manu National Park, Peru. Ecosystems 13(7):1097–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Giulia C, Domenico G, Vincenzo S et al (2012) Ecological classification of land and conservation of biodiversity at the national level: the case of Italy. Biol Conserv 147:174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jackson RB, Jobbágy EG, Avissar R et al (2005) Trading water for carbon with biological sequestration. Science 310(5756):1944–1947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jonge VND, Pinto R, Turner RK (2012) Integrating ecological, economic and social aspects to generate useful management information under the EU directives’ ‘ecosystem approach’. Ocean Coast Manag 68(68):169–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lochhead KD, Comeau PG (2012) Relationships between forest structure, understorey light and regeneration in complex Douglas-fir dominated stands in south-eastern British Columbia. For Ecol Manag 284:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Niu X, Wang B, Liu S et al (2012) Economical assessment of forest ecosystem services in China. Ecol Complex 11(11):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qin JL, Yang WQ, Zhang J (2009) Assessment of ecosystem water conservation value in the upper Minjiang river, Sichuan, China. Chin J Appl Environ Biol 15(4):453–458 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  22. Sheng WP, Ren SJ, Yu GR et al (2011) Patterns and driving factors of WUE and NUE in natural forest ecosystems along the north–south transect of Eastern China. J Geogr Sci 21(4):651–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shi HX, Wang B, Niu X (2016) Ecosystem services of grain for green project in the provinces of the upper and middle reaches of Yangtze and Yellow River. Chin J Ecol 35(11):2903–2911. http://www.cje.net.cn/CN/article/downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF&id=8194. Accessed 15 Sept 2017
  24. Sun G, Zhou G, Zhang Z et al (2006) Potential water yield reduction due to reforestation across China. J Hydrol 328(3–4):548–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sun G, Zhou GY, Zhang ZQ et al (2007) Forest and water relations: hydrologic implications of forestation campaigns in China. In: Jin W (ed) Wetland and water resource modeling and assessment. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  26. The Group of Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China (2010) Assessment of forest ecosystem services in China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  27. Turco S, Napolitano R, Alberti G et al (2004) Analisi mediante tecniche GIS delle relazioni tra variabili ecologiche e vegetazione forestale nelle Prealpi Giulie. Ital Soc Silvic For Ecol 1(2):88–99Google Scholar
  28. Wang B, Ding FJ (2010) Construction of standard system for long-term located observation of forest ecosystems. J Beijing For Univ 32(6):141–145 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Wang B, Ma XQ, Guo H et al (2009) Evaluation of the Chinese fir forest ecosystem services value. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 45(4):124–130 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  30. Wang B, Ren XX, Hu W (2011a) Regional variation of forest ecosystem services in China. J Beijing For Univ 33(2):43–47Google Scholar
  31. Wang S, Fu BJ, He CS et al (2011b) A comparative analysis of forest cover and catchment water yield relationships in northern China. For Ecol Manag 262(7):1189–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang HX, Wang B, Li BY et al (2014) Evaluation of ecological effects of different categories of forest in the Project of Conversion Cropland to Forest. For Resour Manag 3:150–155 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  33. Xu C, Zhang LB, Du JQ et al (2013) Impact of alpine meadow degradation on soil water conservation in the source region of three rivers. Acta Ecologia Sinca 33(8):2388–2399 (in Chinese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yang CJ, Dai QS (2011) Problems and countermeasures in consolidating the results of returning farmland to forest. Cent South For Inventory Plan 30(4):11–14 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  35. Yuan B, Hailiang X, Hongbo L (2014) Eco-service value evaluation based on eco-economic functional regionalization in a typical basin of northwest arid area, China. Environ Earth Sci 71(8):3715–3726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang MJ, Zhou LH (2004) The influence of climate change on the value of Chinese forest ecosystem services. J Arid Land Resour Environ 18(2):40–43 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  37. Zhang HW, Du JS, Wang FY et al (2008) Discussion on silviculture and utilization of the shrubs for conversion of cropland to forest. For Econ 12:26–30 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  38. Zhang YL, Yang FW, Wang B et al (2010) Research on the forest ecosystem services in China. Sin. Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forestry CollegeAgriculture University of HebeiBaodingChina
  2. 2.Langfang Academy of Agriculture and Forestry SciencesLangfangChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources of Forest and Forest Protection of Hebei ProvinceBaodingChina

Personalised recommendations