Advertisement

Degradation processes along the new northeastern shores of the Dead Sea

  • Elias SalamehEmail author
  • Marwan Alraggad
  • Mahmoud Amaireh
Original Article
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

Since about 6 decades the Dead Sea shore has been retreating, exposing herewith shore sediments consisting of alluvial deposits underlain by muds. Enhanced erosional processes by flood and base flows as a result of increasing gradients of slopes have incised deep gorges in the black mud sediments which have resulted in land collapses, landslides and shrinking fractures. Erosion has exposed structures resembling seismites and subaquatic fossil slidings. In this article, the degrading geology of the northeastern shore of the Dead Sea is described and the underlying geo-mechanical, mineralogical and chemical properties of the black mud sediments composed of silt and clay, partly covered by gravel and sand, are evaluated. Attention is also paid to the impacts of the degrading geology on the infrastructure of the area and remediation measures are recommended.

Keywords

Shrinkage Dead Sea Degrading geology Seismites Active faults Infrastructure 

Abbreviations

MCM

Million cubic meters

EC

Electric conductivity

masl

Meters above sea level

LL

Liquid limit

PL

Plasticity limit

PI

Plasticity index

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are highly indebted to Prof. Dr. Stefan Gayer, Halle University, Germany for facilitating the analyses of the engineering properties and hydrochemical parameters in the laboratories of the university. Many thanks are extended to him and his colleagues. Thanks are due to Mrs. Abu Alhaj for carrying out the analyses in Halle University. Sincere thanks are also extended to the anonymous reviewer for his constructive comments and suggestions for changes which have resulted in improved work.

References

  1. Abou Karaki N, Closson D (2012) European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers—EAGE Workshop on DS Sinkholes, causes, effects & solutions, Field Guidebook, p 45Google Scholar
  2. Abou Karaki N, Closson D, Salameh E, de Schoutheete de Tervarent M, Barjous M (2007) Natural, induced and environmental hazards along the DS coast, Jordan. Hydrogeologie und Umwelt Würzburg Heft 33(14):1–25Google Scholar
  3. Abou Karaki N, Fiaschi S, Closson D (2016) Sustainable development and anthropogenic induced geomorphic hazards in subsiding areas. Earth Surf Process Landf. http://www.Wileyonlinelibrary.com.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4047
  4. Al-Haj W (2015) Degradation processes along the new shores of the northeastern DS and their engineering geological solution. Unpubl. M. Sc. Thesis. University of JordanGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen JRL (1982) Sedimentary structures: their character and physical basis, developments in sedimentology I, vol 30A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 593Google Scholar
  6. Amaireh M (2017) Overpressure and liquefaction in the recent deposits of the DS and resulting features. Unpubl. M. Sc. Thesis. University of JordanGoogle Scholar
  7. Ambraseys NN (1991) The Rukwa earthquake of 213 December 1910 in East Africa. Terra Nova 3:203–208Google Scholar
  8. Ambraseys NN, Adams RD (1991) Reappraisal of major African earthquakes, south of 200N, 1900–1930. Nat Hazards 4:389–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. AWWA: American Water Works Association (2012) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edn, AWWA: Denver, p 1496 (AWWA catalog no: 10085) Google Scholar
  10. Bender F (1968) Geologie Von Jordanian. Beitraege zur Regionalen Geologie der Erde, vol 7. Gebrueder Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowman D, Svoray T, Devora S, Shapira I, Laronne JB (2010) Extreme rates of channel incision and shape evolution in response to a continuous, rapid base-level fall, the Dead Sea. Isr Geomorphol 114(3):227–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burdon DJ (1959) Hand book of the geology of Jordan: to a company and explain the three sheet of 1: 250,000 geological map east of the rift, by A M Quennell. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Benham, p 82Google Scholar
  13. Closson D (2005) Structural control of sinkholes and subsidence hazards along the Jordanian DS coast. Environ Geol. 47(2):290–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Closson D, Abou Karaki N (2009a) Human-induced geological hazards along the DS coast. Environ Geol (2009) 58:371–380.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1400-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Closson D, Abou Karaki N (2009b) Salt karst and tectonics: sinkholes development along tension cracks between parallel strike-slip faults, DS, Jordan. Earth Surf Process Landf http://www.interscience.wiley.com.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1829
  16. Closson D, Abou Karaki N (2013) Sinkhole hazards prediction at Ghor Al Haditha, DS, Jordan: “Salt Edge” and “tectonic” models contribution-a rebuttal to “geophysical prediction and following development sinkholes in two DS areas, Israel and Jordan. by: Ezersky MG, Eppelba. Environ Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2418-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Closson D, Abou Karaki N (2014) Dikes stability monitoring versus sinkholes and subsidence, DS Region, Jordan. In Land applications of radar remote sensing Holecz F, Pasquali P, Milisavljevic N, Closson D (eds), InTech, New York. ISBN: 978-953-51-1589-2.  https://doi.org/10.5772/55833 (Chap. 10 in this international Book. 318 pages, Chapters published June 11, 2014 under CC BY 3.0 license )
  18. Closson D, Abou Karaki N, Hansen H, Derauw D, Barbier C, Ozer A (2003) Space born radar interferometric mapping of precursory deformations of a dike collapse—DS area—Jordan. Int J Remote Sens 24(4):843–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DoM: Department of Meteorology, Jordan, Open filesGoogle Scholar
  20. DIN 18122 (1997) Soil investigation and testing, part 1: determination of liquid limit and plastic limit. German Institute for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  21. DIN 18130 (1998) Laboratory testing for determining the coeffivient of permeability of soils. German Institute for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  22. DIN 38410 (2004) Deutsches Einheitsverfahren zur Wasser-, Abwasser-und Schlammuntersuchung): Biologischökologische Gewässeruntersuchung. Beuth-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  23. DIN 18135 (2012) Soil investigation and testing−Oedometer consolidation test 2012. German Institut for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  24. El-Isa ZH, Mustafa H (1986) Earthquake deformations in the Lisan deposits and seismotectonic implications. R Astron Soc Geophys J 86:413–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. El-Isa ZH, Rimawi O, Jarrar GH, Abou-Karaki N, Atallah M, Seif ed-din N, Taqi ed-din S, Al-Saad A (1995) Assessment of the hazard of subsidence and sinkholes in Ghor Al-Haditha area. Center for Consultation, Technical Services. University of Jordan. Final report. p 141Google Scholar
  26. Fiaschi S, Closson D, Abou Karaki N, Pasquali P, Riccardi P, Floris M (2017) The complex karst dynamics of the Lisan Peninsula revealed by 25 years of DInSAR observations. Dead Sea, Jordan. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 130:358–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghyben-Herzberg (1888–1989) Nota in verband met de voorgenomen putboring nabij Amsterdam. Tijdschrift Kon Inst Ing 5:8–22Google Scholar
  28. Glaser J, Thiel M, Hötzl H, Ali W, Werz H (2004) Hydrogeological Investigations in the North-Eastern Dead Sea area, Suweimeh, Jordan. In: Zereini F, Jaeschke W (eds) Water in the Middle East and in North Africa. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  29. Glover RE (1959) The pattern of freshwater flow in coastal aquifers. J Geophys Res 64:457–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greenwood R, Kendall K (1999) Electro acoustic studies of moderately concentrated colloidal suspensions. J Eur Ceram Soc 19(4):479–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hötzl H, Ali W, Glaser J, Thiel M, Salameh E (2004) The effects of the structural setting on the hydrogeology of the eastern Escarpment/Dead Sea area, Jordan. In: Chatzipetros AA, Pavlides SB (eds.) 5th international symposium on eastern Mediterranean geology, proceedings, 3, pp 1526–1528, ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  32. Manning R (1891) On the flow of water in open channels and pipes. Trans Inst Civ Eng Irel 20:161–207Google Scholar
  33. Obermayer SF (1996) Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis—an overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes. Eng Geol 44(1–4):1–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Obermayer SF (2009) Using liquefaction-induced and other soft-sediment features for paleoseismic analysis. In: Paleoseismology, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Massachussets, pp. 497–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Salameh E, El-Naser H (1999) Does the actual drop in the Dead Sea level reflect the development of water resources within its drainage basin?. Acta hydrochimical et hydrobiologica 27(1):5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Salameh E, El-Naser H (2000a) Changes in the Dead Sea level and their impact on the surrounding groundwater bodies. Acta hydrochimical et hydrobiologica 28(1):24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Salameh E, El-Naser H (2000b) The interface configuration of the fresh-/Dead Sea water—theory and measurements. Acta h ydrochimica et hydrobiologica 28(6):323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Salameh E, El-Naser H (2005) Retreat of the Dead Sea and its effects on the surrounding groundwater resources and the stability of its coastal deposits. In: sustainable use of water resources along the lower Jordan River. Ed. Hoetzl H, KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  39. Salameh E, El-Naser H (2008) Restoring the shrinking Dead Sea—the environmental imperative. In: Zereini F and Hoetzl H (eds) Climatic changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa. Springer Publishing Company, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  40. Seilacher A (1969) Fault-graded beds interpreted as seismites. In: Sedimentology, vol 13. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 155–159Google Scholar
  41. Seilacher A (1984) Sedimentary structures tentatively attributed to seismic events. Mar Geol 55:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shanmugam G (2016) The seismite problem. J Palaeogeogr 5(4):318–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sims JD (1975) Determining earthquakes recurrence intervals from deformational structures in joung lacustrine sediments. Tectonophysics 29:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Storz-Peretz Y, Bowman D, Laronne JB, Svoray T (2010) Rapid incision of a small, coarse and steep fan-delta in response to base-level fall: the case of Nahal Qedem, the Dead Sea, Israel. Earth Surf Process Landf 36(4):467–480.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wiesemann G (1969) Zur Tectonik des Gebietes östlich des Graben—abschnittes Totes Meer—Jordantal. Beiträge Geologisches Jahrbuch 81:215–274Google Scholar
  46. Yechieli Y, Abelson M, Bein A, Crouvi O, Shtivelman V (2006) Sinkhole ‘swarms’ along the Dead Sea coast: reflection of disturbance of lake and adjacent groundwater systems. Geol Soc Am Bull 118:1075–1087.  https://doi.org/10.1130/B25880.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elias Salameh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marwan Alraggad
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Amaireh
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Strategic StudiesUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Water, Energy and Environment CenterUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Department of GeologyUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations