Advertisement

Unravelling preferential flow paths and estimating groundwater potential in a fractured metamorphic aquifer in Taiwan by using borehole logs and hybrid DFN/EPM model

  • Shih-Meng HsuEmail author
  • C. C. Ke
  • Y. T. Lin
  • C. C. Huang
  • Y. S. Wang
Original Article
  • 84 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents a practical-oriented approach for the characterization of preferential flow paths and modeling of three-dimensional fracture network in a fractured metamorphic aquifer that can be used to effectively evaluate groundwater potential in support of groundwater resources planning and management. This approach was demonstrated by using a couple of on-site hydrogeological tests and a hybrid numerical model at the Shuangliu well field situated in the Shungliou Forest Recreation Park, Southern Taiwan. The well field experiments have demonstrated that the combined downhole logging technique can successfully identify interconnection of permeable fractures, and have proved that the preferential flow paths is strongly associated with the major fracture orientation. Cross-borehole flowmeter tests have been confirmed as a useful technique to investigate preferential flow paths between boreholes. The modeling software FracMan was applied to develop a 3-D hybrid Discrete Fracture Network/Equivalent Porous Media (DFN/EPM) model with the aid of the above field tests, outcrop data and the identified scaling properties from fracture statistical analysis. Based on few outcrop data, the proposed 3-D hybrid model can appropriately predict the fracture geometry and locations of preferential flow paths for understanding the entire network structure and flow characteristics. However, collecting outcrop data as many as possible would firmly improve the prediction results of preferential flow paths in every study region. Finally, the validated model can be used to determine groundwater storage in a water planning area. Therefore, this study provides insight into effective fractured rock aquifer characterization and modeling to deal with the heterogeneity of fractured rock and improve the accuracy of groundwater storage computation.

Keywords

Preferential flow paths Fracture transmissivity Cross-borehole flowmeter test EPM/DFN model Groundwater potential Borehole logs 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would also like to acknowledge all the individuals who participated in the field data collections and investigation of the well field.

References

  1. Annable MD, Jawitz JW, Rao PSC, Dai DP, Kim H, Wood AL (1998) Field Evaluation of interfacial and partitioning tracers for characterization of effective NAPL-water contact. Areas Ground Water 36:495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annable MD, Hatfield K, Cho J, Klammler H, Parker BL, Cherry JA, Rao PSC (2005) Field-scale evaluation of the passive flux meter for simultaneous measurement of groundwater and contaminant fluxes. Environ Sci Technol 39:7194–7201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakun-Mazor D, Hatzor YH, Dershowitz WS (2009) Modeling mechanical layering effects on stability of underground openings in jointed sedimentary rocks International. J Rock Mech Min Sci 46:262–271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker JA (1988) A generalized radial-flow model for pumping tests in fractured rock. Water Resour Res 24(10):1796–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker MW, Shapiro AM (2000) Tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock: Evidence of nondiffusive breakthrough tailing. Water Resource Res 36:1677–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benjamin JR, Cornell CA (1970) Probability, statistics and decision for civil engineers. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg SJ, Illman WA (2013) Field study of subsurface heterogeneity with steady-state hydraulic tomography. Ground Water 51:29–40.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00914.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkowitz B (2002) Characterizing flow and transport in fractured geological media. Adv Water Resour 25:861–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cacas MC, Ledoux E, Marsily GD, Tillie B (1990) Modeling of fracture flow with a stochastic discrete fracture network_calibration and validation. Water Resour Res 26:479–489Google Scholar
  10. Central Geological Survey of Central Taiwan (2013) Ground-water resources investigation program for mountainous region of Taiwan(4/4). Ministry of Economic Affairs, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  11. Central Geological Survey of Central Taiwan (2014) Ground-water resources investigation program for mountainous region of Southern Taiwan(1/4). Ministry of Economic Affairs, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  12. Central Geological Survey of Taiwan (2010) Ground-water resources investigation program for mountainous region of Central Taiwan(1/4). Ministry of Economic Affairs, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  13. Cherry JA, Paker BL, Keller C (2007) A new depth-discrete multilevel monitoring approach for fractured rock. Ground Water Monit Remediat 27:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chou P-Y, Lo H-C, Hsu S-M, Lin Y-T, Huang C-C (2012) Prediction of hydraulically transmissive fractures using geological and geophysical attributes: a case history from the mid Jhuoshuei River basin, Taiwan. Hydrogeol J 20:1101–1116.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-012-0861-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Day-Lewis FD, Hsieh PA, Gorelick SM (2000) Identifying fracture-zone geometry using simulated annealing and hydraulic-connection data. Water Resour Res 36:1707–1721.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000wr900073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deo M, Sorkhabi R, McLennan J, Bhide R, Zhao N (2013) Gas production forecasting from tight gas reservoirs: integrating natural fracture networks and hydraulic fractures. University of Utah, UtahGoogle Scholar
  17. Dershowitz W (1992) Interpretation and synthesis of discrete fracture orientation, size, shape, spatial structure and hydrologic data by forward modeling. In: the conference on fractured and jointed rock masses, Lake Tahoe, California, 1992, 579–586Google Scholar
  18. Dershowitz WS (2006) Hybrid discrete fracture network and equivalent continuum model for Shaft. Paper presented at the Golden Rocks 2006, The 41st US Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Dershowitz W, Miller I (1995) Dual porosity fracture flow and transport. Geophys Res Lett 22:1441–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dershowitz W, Wallmann, Kindred S (1991) Discrete fracture modelling for the Stripa site characterization and validation drift inflow predictions. SKB Technical Report 91–16Google Scholar
  21. Dershowitz W, Eiben T, Wadleigh E, Cladouhos T (1998) Discrete feature network approaches for enhanced oil recovery. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 35:550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dershowitz WS, Pointe PRL, Doe TW (2004) Dershowitz_Advances in Discrete Fracture Network Modeling. Golder Associates Inc. https://www.cluin.org/products/siteprof/2004fracrockconf/cdr_pdfs/indexed/group1/882.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2017
  23. Doe T, McLaren R, Dershowitz W (2014) Discrete fracture network simulations of enhanced geothermal systems. In: Thirty-Ninth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  24. Duffield GM (2004) AQTESOLVE version 4 user’s guide. Developer of AQTESOLV HydroSOLVE, Inc., RestonGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellefsen KJ, Hsieh PA, Shapiro AM (2002) Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock near Mirror Lake. New Hampshire 50:299–317Google Scholar
  26. Feeney T, Kelley MJ (2001) Development of steady-state FRAC3DVS three-dimensional saturated flow model for the Y12 bioremediation site. US Department of Energy, Oak RidgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Feller W (1971) An Introduction to probability theory and its applications vol 2, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Forestry B (2002) Hot spring investigation program in the Shungliou forest recreation area. Pingtung Forest District Office, PingtungGoogle Scholar
  29. Gellasch CA, Bradbury KR, Hart DJ, Bahr JM (2013) Characterization of fracture connectivity in a siliciclastic bedrock aquifer near a public supply well (Wisconsin, USA). Hydrogeol J 21:383–399.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-012-0914-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamm S-Y, Kim M, Cheong J-Y, Kim J-Y, Son M, Kim T-W (2007) Relationship between hydraulic conductivity and fracture properties estimated from packer tests and borehole data in a fractured granite. Eng Geol 92:73–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hartley L, Worth D, Gylling B, Marsic N, N JH (2004) Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark—numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW: preliminary site description Forsmark area—version 1.2. SKB, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  32. Hatfield K, Annable M, Chob J, Raod PSC, Klammler H (2004) A direct passive method for measuring water and contaminant fluxes in porous media. J Contam Hydrol 75:155–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2004.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hsu SM, Chung MC, Ku CY, Tan CH, Weng W (2007) An application of acoustic televiewer and double packer system to the study of the hydraulic properties of fractured rocks. In: paper presented at the 60th Canadian geotechnical conference and 8th joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  34. Hsu S-M, Lin J-J, Chen N-C, Lin Y-T, Huang C-C (2012) Identification of groundwater potential site in Taiwan Mountainous Region. In: American Geophysical Union 45th annual Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  35. Illman WA (2014) Hydraulic tomography offers improved imaging of heterogeneity in fractured rocks. Ground Water 52:659–684.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gwat.12119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ji S-H, Park KW, Lim D-H, Kim C, Kim KS, Dershowitz W (2012) A hybrid modeling approach to evaluate the groundwater flow system at the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal site in Gyeong-Ju. Korea Hydrogeol J 20:1341–1353.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-012-0875-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klepikova MV, Le Borgne T, Bour O, Davy P (2011) A methodology for using borehole temperature-depth profiles under ambient, single and cross-borehole pumping conditions to estimate fracture hydraulic properties. J Hydrol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ku CY, Hsu SM, Chung MC, Chi SY, Fei LY (2009) An empirical model for Estimating hydraulic conductivity of highly disturbed fractured rocks in. Taiwan Eng Geol 109:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Le Borgne T, Bour O, de Dreuzy JR, Davy P, Touchard F (2004) Equivalent mean flow models for fractured aquifers: insights from a pumping tests scaling interpretation Water Resour Res 40  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003wr002436
  40. Le Borgne T, Bour O, Paillet FL, Caudal JP (2006a) Assessment of preferential flow path connectivity and hydraulic properties at single-borehole and cross-borehole scales in a fractured aquifer. J Hydrol 328:347–359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.12.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Le Borgne T, Paillet F, Bour O, Caudal JP (2006b) Cross-borehole flowmeter tests for transient heads in heterogeneous aquifers. Ground Water 44:444–452.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.00150.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee T-P, Chia Y, Chen J-S, Chen H, Liu C-W (2012) Effects of free convection and friction on heat-pulse flowmeter measurement J Hydrol 428–429Google Scholar
  43. Lin J-J, Chou P-Y, Hsu S-M, Chi S-Y, Lin Y-T, Huang C-C (2013) Spatial distribution of potential water-bearing zone in the mountainous region of Taiwan. In: IAHS-IAPSO-IASPEI Joint 37th Scientific Assembly, Gothenburg (Sweden)Google Scholar
  44. Lin LX, Lin HL, Xu YX (2014) Characterisation of fracture network and groundwater preferential flow path in the table mountain group (TMG) sandstones. S Afr Water SA 40:263–272.  https://doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v40i2.8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lo H-C, Chen P-J, Chou P-Y, Hsu S-M (2014) The combined use of heat-pulse flowmeter logging and packer testing for transmissive fracture recognition. J Appl Geophys 105:248–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.03.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Maliva RG (2016) aquifer characterization techniques schlumberger methods in water resources evaluation series no. 4. Springer, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32137-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miyakawa K, Tanaka K, Hirata Y, Kanauchi M (2000) Detection of hydraulic pathways in fractured rock masses and estimation of conductivity by a newly developed TV equipped flowmeter. Eng Geol 56:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muldoon MA, Simo JA, Bradbury KR (2001) Correlation of hydraulic conductivity with stratigraphy in a fractured-dolomite aquifer, northeastern Wisconsin, USA. Hydrogeol J 9:570–583.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0165-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine (2015) Characterization, modeling, monitoring, and remediation of fractured rock. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. National Research Council (1996) Rock fractures and fluid flow: contemporary understanding and applications. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  51. Neuman SP (2005) Trends, prospects and challenges in quantifying flow and transport through fractured rocks. Hydrogeol J 13:124–147.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-004-0397-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Osnes JD, Winberg A, Andersson JE (1988) Analysis of well test data—application of probabilistic models to infer hydraulic properties of fractures, Topical Report RSI-0338. RE/SPEC INC., Rapid CityGoogle Scholar
  53. Paillet FL, Hess AE, Cheng CH, Hardin E (1987) Characterization of fracture permeability with high-resolution vertical flow measurements during borehole pumping. Ground Water 25:28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Paillet FL, Williams JH, Urik J, Lukes J, Kobr M, Mares S (2012) Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian–Moravian Highland. Czech Repub Hydrogeol J 20:143–154.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-011-0787-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pan J-B, Lee C-C, Lee C-H, Yeh H-F, Lin H-I (2010) Application of fracture network model with crack permeability tensor on flow and transport in fractured rock. Eng Geol 116:166–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pehme PE, Parker BL, Cherry JA, Greenhouse JP (2010) Improved resolution of ambient flow through fractured rock with temperature logs. Ground Water 48:191–205.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2009.00639.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Price RM, Top Z, Happell JD, Swart PK (2003) Use of tritium and helium to define groundwater flow conditions in Everglades National Park Water Resour Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002wr001929 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Read T et al (2013) Characterizing groundwater flow and heat transport in fractured rock using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing. Geophys Res Lett 40:2055–2059.  https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Serzu MH, Kozak ET, Lodha GS, Everitt RA, Woodcock DR (2004) Use of borehole radar techniques to characterize fractured granitic bedrock at AECL’s Underground Research Laboratory. J Appl Geophys 55:137–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2003.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Singhal BBS, Gupta RP (2010) Applied hydrogeology of fractured rocks. 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Steelman CM, Arnaud E, Pehme P, Parker BL (2017) Geophysical, geological, and hydrogeological characterization of a tributary buried bedrock valley in southern Ontario Canadian J Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2016-0120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Szabo Z, Rice DE, Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Drenkard S, Schlosser P (1996) Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium: 3, and flow path analysis. South N J Coast Plain Water Resour Res 32:1023–1038.  https://doi.org/10.1029/96wr00068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tweed SO, Weaver TR, Cartwright I (2004) Distinguishing groundwater flow paths in different fractured-rock aquifers using groundwater chemistry: Dandenong Ranges. Southeast Aust Hydrogeol J 13:771–786.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-004-0348-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Viviroli D, Durr HH, Messerli B, Meybeck M, Weingartner R (2007) Mountains of the world, water towers for humanity: typology, mapping, and global significance. Water Resour Res 43:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006wr005653 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang X (2005) Stereological interpretation of rock fracture traces on borehole walls and other cylindrical surfaces. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  66. Williams JH, Johnson CD (2004) Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies. J Appl Geophys 55:151–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2003.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Williams JH, Paillet FL (2002) Using flowmeter pulse tests to define hydraulic connections in the subsurface: a fractured shale example. J Hydrol 265:100–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Harbor and River EngineeringNational Taiwan Ocean UniversityKeelung CityTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Geotechnical Engineering Research CenterSinotech Engineering Consultants, IncTaipei CityTaiwan, Republic of China
  3. 3.Central Geological SurveyMinistry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)New Taipei CityTaiwan, Republic of China

Personalised recommendations