Advertisement

Experimental simulation of boundary condition effects on bentonite swelling in HLW repositories

  • Chao-Sheng TangEmail author
  • Sheng-Jie Li
  • Dong-Wei Wang
  • Zhi-Guo Chen
  • Bin Shi
  • Hilary Inyang
Original Article
  • 91 Downloads

Abstract

On the basis of textural and hydro-mechanical characteristics, bentonite has been proven to be an effective buffer/backfill material for long-term containment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in deep geological repositories. Herein, the results of experiments performed to investigate the swelling equilibrium limit (SEL) of bentonite under various boundary conditions are presented. A special apparatus was employed to simulate various stress–strain boundary conditions, including constant volume (CV), constant vertical stress (CVS), and constant stiffness (CS). Bentonite samples were prepared with various initial dry densities ranging from 1.5 to 1.7 g/cm3 and vertically stressed to different levels. During wetting, they were subjected to different boundary conditions before the swelling strain or swelling pressure reached equilibrium. Test results indicate that stress–strain boundary conditions have significant effects on the measured swelling strain and swelling pressure of the tested bentonite. More specifically, the relationship between the sequence of swelling pressure under different boundary conditions is CV > CS > CVS, while the relationship between the sequence of swelling strain is CVS > CS > CV. In addition, the characteristics of SEL curves are governed by the initial dry density and vertical stress with the effect of dry density being more significant. Based on these results, several SEL curves were developed to index the effects of boundary conditions on swelling potential of bentonite. They can be used to evaluate the final stress and volume states of bentonite during fluid infiltration under the range of boundary conditions possible in HLW repositories.

Keywords

GMZ bentonite Stress–strain boundary condition Swelling equilibrium limit Swelling behavior Radioactive waste disposal Dry density 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 41572246, 41772280), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant nos. BK20171228, BK20170394), National Science Foundation of China for Excellent Young Scholars (Grant no. 41322019), Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41230636), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References

  1. Agus SS, Schanz T (2008) A method for predicting swelling pressure of compacted bentonites. Acta Geotech 3(2):125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Badran Y, Baille W, Tripathy S, Schanz T (2015) Swelling behavior of bentonite-based backfilling materials in nuclear waste repository conditions. J Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste 21(1):D4015006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amadi AA (2013) Swelling characteristics of compacted lateritic soil–bentonite mixtures subjected to municipal waste leachate contamination. Environ Earth Sci 70(6):2437–2442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baille W, Tripathy S, Schanz T (2010) Swelling pressures and one-dimensional compressibility behaviour of bentonite at large pressures. Appl Clay Sci 48(3):324–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen YG, Zhu CM, Ye WM, Cui YJ, Chen B (2016) Effects of solution concentration and vertical stress on the swelling behavior of compacted GMZ01 bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 124–125:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen ZG, Tang CS, Zhu C, Shi B, Liu YM (2017) Compression, swelling and rebound behavior of GMZ bentonite/additive mixture under coupled hydro-mechanical condition. Eng Geol 221:50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cui YJ, Tang AM, Loiseau C, Delage P (2008) Determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a compacted sand–bentonite mixture under constant-volume and free-swell conditions. Phys Chem Earth 33:462–471 (Parts A/B/C) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui YJ, Tang AM, Qian LX, Ye WM, Chen B (2011) Thermal-mechanical behavior of compacted GMZ bentonite. Soils Found 51(6):1065–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cuisinier O, Masrouri F (2005) Hydro-mechanical behavior of a compacted swelling soil over a wide suction range. Eng Geol 8(3):204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delage P, Howat MD, Cui YJ (1998) The relationship between suction and swelling properties in a heavily compacted unsaturated clay. Eng Geol 50(1–2):31–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delage P, Marcial D, Cui YJ, Ruiz X (2006) Ageing effects in a compacted bentonite: a microstructure approach. Géotechnique 56(5):291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferber V, Auriol JC, Cui YJ, Magnan JP (2009) On the swelling potential of compacted high plasticity clays. Eng Geol 104(3):200–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H (1993) Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gens A, Alonso EE (1992) A framework for the behavior of unsaturated expansive clays. Can Geotech J 29(6):1013–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He Y, Ye WM, Chen YG, Chen B, Ye B, Cui YJ (2016) Influence of pore fluid concentration on water retention properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 129:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Inyang HI, Tumay MT (1995) Containment systems for contaminants in the subsurface. A chapter in the encyclopedia of environmental control technology. Gulf Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Inyang HI, Iskandar A, Parikh JM (1998) Physico-chemical interactions in waste containment barriers. In: Encyclopedia of environmental analysis and remediation, vol 2. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Inyang HI, Rossi L, Graham-Eagle J, Pennell S, Menezes GB (2007) Modeling smectite illitization in earthen barriers of buried radioactive wastes. Int J Geomech Geoeng 2(2):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kariuki PC, Meer FVD (2004) A unified swelling potential index for expansive soils. Eng Geol 72(1–2):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaufhold S, Baille W, Schanz T, Dohrmann R (2015) About differences of swelling pressure—dry density relations of compacted bentonites. Appl Clay Sci 107:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Komine H (2004) Simplified evaluation for swelling characteristics of bentonites. Eng Geol 71:265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Komine H, Ogata N (1994) Experimental study of swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. Can Geotech J 31(4):478–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Komine HK, Yasuhara KY, Murakami SM (2015) Swelling characteristics of bentonites in artificial seawater. Can Geotech J 46(46):177–189Google Scholar
  24. Lajudie A, Raynal J, Petit JC, Toulhoat P (1996) Clay-based materials for engineered barriers: a review. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 353:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Latifi N, Rashid ASA, Siddiqua S, Horpibulsuk S (2015) Micro-structural analysis of strength development in low- and high swelling clays stabilized with magnesium chloride solution—a green soil stabilizer. Appl Clay Sci 118:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li SJ, Tang CS, Chen ZG, Wang DW, Shi B, Hilary I (2018) Influence of stress–strain boundary conditions on the swelling behavior of bentonite. In: GeoShanghai international conference. Springer, Singapore, pp 679–688Google Scholar
  27. Likos WJ (2004) Measurement of crystalline swelling in expansive clay. Geotech Test J 27(6):540–546Google Scholar
  28. Liu YM, Wen ZJ (2003) An investigation of the physical properties of clayey materials used in nuclear waste disposal at great depth. Min Rocks 23:42–45 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  29. Liu XF, Buzzi OP, Vaunat J (2014) Influence of stress-volume path on swelling behaviour of an expansive clay. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on unsaturated soils: research & applications, Sydney, pp 2–4Google Scholar
  30. Lloret A, Villar MV (2007) Advances on the knowledge of the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of heavily compacted FEBEX bentonite. Phys Chem Earth 32(8–14):701–715 (Parts A/B/C) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Massat L, Cuisinier O, Bihannic I, Claret F, Pelletier M, Masrouri F, Gaboreau S (2016) Swelling pressure development and inter-aggregate porosity evolution upon hydration of a compacted swelling clay. Appl Clay Sci 124–125:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitchell JK, Soga K (2005) Fundamentals of soil behavior. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  33. Mollins LH, Stewart DI, Cousens TW (1962) Predicting the properties of bentonite-sand mixtures. Clay Min 31(2):243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Navarro V, Morena GDL, Yustres Á, González-Arteaga J, Asensio L (2017) Predicting the swelling pressure of MX-80 bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 149:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Panjaitan SRN (2014) The effect of lime content on the bearing capacity and swelling potential of expansive soil. J Civil Eng Res 4(3A):89–95Google Scholar
  36. Pejon OJ, Zuquette LV (2006) Effects of strain on the swelling pressure of mudrocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43(5):817–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Powell JS, Siemens GA, Take WA, Remenda VH (2013) Characterizing the swelling potential of Bearpaw clayshale. Eng Geol 158(3):89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pusch R (1979) Highly compacted sodium bentonite for isolating rock-deposited radioactive waste products. Nucl Technol 45(2):153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pusch R, Madsen F (1995) Aspects on the illitization of the Kinnekulle bentonites. Clay Clay Miner 43(3):261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rossi L, Inyang HI, Graham-Eagle J, Pennell S (2004) A model of coupled heat moisture transport in an annular barrier. J Environ Eng ASCE 130(8):855–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saba S, Barnichon JD, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Delage P (2014) Microstructure and anisotropic swelling behavior of compacted bentonite/sand mixture. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 6(2):126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schanz T, Al-Badran Y (2014) Swelling pressure characteristics of compacted Chinese Gaomiaozi bentonite GMZ01. Soils Found 54(4):748–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Siemens G, Blatz JA (2009) Evaluation of the influence of boundary confinement on the behavior of unsaturated swelling clay soils. Can Geotech J 46(3):339–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sridharan A, Gurtug Y (2004) Swelling behavior of compacted fine-grained soils. Eng Geol 72(1):9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sridharan A, Rao GV (1973) Mechanisms controlling volume change of saturated clays and the role of the effective stress concept. Géotechnique 23(3):359–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sun DA, Cui H, Sun W (2009) Swelling of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. Appl Clay Sci 43:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sun DA, Zhang JY, Zhang JR, Zhang L (2013) Swelling characteristics of GMZ bentonite and its mixtures. Appl Clay Sci 84(10):224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sun WJ, Wei ZF, Sun DA, Liu SQ, Fatahi B, Wang XQ (2015) Evaluation of the swelling characteristics of bentonite–sand mixtures. Eng Geol 199:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tang CS, Tang AM, Cui YJ, Delage P, Schroeder C, Laure ED (2011) Investigating the swelling pressure of compacted crushed-Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. Phys Chem Earth 36(17–18):1857–1866 (Parts A/B/C) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tang CS, Huang LM, Ye WM, Wang J, Liu YM (2013) Influence of boundary condition on the swelling behavior of GMZ01 buffer/backfilling material in HLW repository. In: Rock characterisation modelling and engineering design methods, p 199Google Scholar
  51. Thakur VKS, Singh DN (2005) Rapid determination of swelling pressure of clay minerals. J Test Eval 33(4):239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tripathy S, Sridharan A, Schanz T (2004) Swelling pressures of compacted bentonites from diffuse double layer theory. Can Geotech J 41(3):437–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tripathy S, Thomas HR, Bag R (2015) Geoenvironmental application of bentonites in underground disposal of nuclear waste: Characterization and laboratory tests. J Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste 21(1):D4015002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Villar MV, Lloret A (2004) Influence of temperature on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a compacted bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 26(1–4):337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Villar MV, Lloret A (2008) Influence of dry density and water content on the swelling of a compacted bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 39(1–2):38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Villar MV, Iglesias RJ, Gutiérrez-Álvarez C, Carbonell B (2018) Hydraulic and mechanical properties of compacted bentonite after 18 years in barrier conditions. Appl Clay Sci 160:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang Q, Tang AM, Cui YJ, Delage P, Gatmiri B (2012) Experimental study on the swelling behavior of bentonite/claystone mixture. Eng Geol 124(1):59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang Q, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Delage P, Gatmiri B, Ye WM (2014) Long-term effect of water chemistry on the swelling pressure of a bentonite-based material. Appl Clay Sci 87(1):157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wen ZJ (2006) Physical property of China’s buffer material for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 25(4):794–800 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  60. Xie M, Agus SS, Schanz T, Kolditz O (2004) An upscaling method and a numerical analysis of swelling/shrinking processes in a compacted bentonite/sand mixture. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 28(15):1479–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ye WM, Schanz T, Qian LX, Wang J, Arifin Y (2007) Characteristics of swelling pressure of densely compacted gaomiaozi bentonite GMZ01. Chin J Rock Mechan Eng 26(S2):3861–3865Google Scholar
  62. Ye WM, Cui YJ, Qian LX, Chen B (2009a) An experimental study of the water transfer through confined compacted GMZ bentonite. Eng Geol 108(3–4):169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ye WM, Qian LX, Chen B, Yu C (2009b) Characteristics of micro-structure of densely compacted Gaomiaozi bentonite. J Tongji Univ 37(1):31–35Google Scholar
  64. Ye WM, Chen YG, Chen B, Wang Q, Wang J (2010) Advances on the knowledge of the buffer/backfill properties of heavily-compacted GMZ bentonite. Eng Geol 116:12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ye WM, Borrell NC, Zhu JY, Chen B, Chen YG (2014) Advances on the investigation of the hydraulic behavior of compacted GMZ01 bentonite. Eng Geol 169:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yigzaw ZG, Cuisinier O, Massat L, Masrouri F (2016) Role of different suction components on swelling behavior of compacted bentonites. Appl Clay Sci 120:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang F, Ye WM, Chen YG, Chen B, Cui YJ (2016) Influences of salt solution concentration and vertical stress during saturation on the volume change behavior of compacted GMZ01 bentonite. Eng Geol 207:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth Sciences and EngineeringNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Global Education and Infrastructure Services Inc.CharlotteUSA
  3. 3.Global Education and Infrastructure Services Inc.AbujaNigeria

Personalised recommendations