Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:108 | Cite as

A laboratory study of the presence and transformation of dissolved Mn(III) across the sediment–water interface of an anoxic freshwater body

  • Lei ChenEmail author
  • Junjie Zhang
  • Xilai Zheng
Original Article


Dissolved Mn(III) has been verified to be an important component of Mn cycling in a natural water system. However, the existence and stability of dissolved Mn(III) and its interactions with environmental factors, such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater body are still not clear. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of dissolved Mn (Mndiss), Mn(III), pH, DO, ORP and DOC across the sediment–water interface of anoxic freshwater environment (Wangjuan Reservoir of Qingdao City) were studied through laboratory experiments. The correlations between Mndiss and these key environmental factors, as well as between Mn(III) and environmental factors were quantitatively analyzed. The results indicated that concentration gradient was the main driving force of Mndiss and Mn(III) of each layer overlying water, and there were obvious differences between the concentrations of Mndiss and Mn(III) of overlying and pore water. In sediment pore water, dissolved Mn(III) concentrations were as high as 9.35 mg/L and constituted up to 23% of the total dissolved Mn pool, indicating that dissolved Mn(III) could stably exist in anoxic freshwater body and mainly came from the reduction process of Mn oxides in sediment. According to data analysis results, both the concentrations of Mndiss and Mn(III) of pore water had significant correlations with the values of pH, ORP, and DOC of sediment pore water. The correlation coefficients of Mndiss with the three factors were − 0.861, − 0.882 and − 0.934, respectively, while, the correlation coefficients of Mn(III) with them were − 0.836, − 0.671 and − 0.851, respectively.


Anoxic reservoir Dissolved Mn(III) Sediment–water interface Correlation analysis 



The authors are grateful to the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51409236) and Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (ZR2017LEE024).


  1. Agrochemistry Committee of Soil Science Society (ACSSS) of China (1983) Conventional method of soil agrochemistry analysis. Chinese Environmental Science Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  2. Beck M, Dellwig O, Schnetger B, Brumsack H-J (2008) Cycling of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Mo, U, V, Cr) in deep pore waters of intertidal flat sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:2822–2840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beutel MW, Leonard TM, Dent SR, Moore BC (2008) Effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on P, N, Fe, Mn, and Hg accumulation in waters overlaying profundal sediments of an oligo-mesotrophic lake. Water Res 42:1953–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canfield DE, Kristensen E, Thamdrup B (2005) Advances in marine biology. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao X, Chen Y, Wang X, Deng X (2001) Effect of redox potential and pH value on the release of rare earth elements from soil. Chemosphere 44:655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen L, Zheng XL, Wang TJ, Zhang JJ (2015) Influences of key factors on manganese release from soil of a reservoir shore. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:11801–11812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corsini A, Cavalca L, Zaccheo P, Crippa L, Andreoni V (2011) Influence of microorganisms on arsenic mobilization and speciation in a submerged contaminated soil: effects of citrate. Appl Soil Ecol 49:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cudowski A (2015) Dissolved reactive manganese as a new index determining the trophic status of limnic waters. Ecol Indic 48:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davison W, Woof C (1984) A study of the cycling of manganese and other elements in a seasonally anoxic lake, Rostherne Mere, UK. Water Res 18:727–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dellwig O, Schnetger B, Brumsack HJ, Grossart HP, Umlauf L (2012) Dissolved reactive manganese at pelagic redoxclines (part II): hydrodynamic conditions for accumulation. J Mar Syst 90:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duckworth OW, Sposito G (2005) Siderophore–manganese(III) interactions. I. Air-oxidation of manganese(II) promoted by desferrioxamine B. Environ Sci Technol 39:6037–6044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fick A (1855) Ueber diffusion. Ann Phys 170:59–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gerringa LJA (1990) Aerobic degradation of organic matter and the mobility of Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn in marine sediment slurries. Mar Chem 29:355–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gordienko VI, Sidorenko VI, Mikhailyuk YI (1970) Amperometric investigation of Mn(III) pyrophosphate complexes. Russ J Inorg Chem 15:1241–1244Google Scholar
  15. Gottfreund J, Schmitt G, Schweisfurth R (1985) Wertigkeitswechsel von Manganspecies durch Bakterien in Nahrlosungen and in Lockergestein. Landwirtsch Forsch 38:80–86Google Scholar
  16. Graham MC, Gavin KG, Farmer JG, Kirika A, Britton A (2002) Processes controlling the retention and release of manganese in the organic-rich catchment of Loch Bradan, SW Scotland. Appl Geochem 17:1061–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo S, Wang X, Li Y, Chen JJ, Yang JC (2006) Investigation on Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd fractions in the natural surface coating samples and surficial sediments in the Songhua River, China. J Environ Sci 18:1193–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamilton-Taylor J, Smith EJ, Davison W, Sugiyama M (2005) Resolving and modeling the effects of Fe and Mn redox cycling on trace metal behavior in a seasonally anoxic lake. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:1947–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heintze SG, Mann PJG (1947) Soluble complexes of manganic manganese. J Agric Sci 37:23–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klewicki JK, Morgan JJ (1998) Kinetic behavior of Mn(III) complexes of pyrophosphate, EDTA and citrate. Environ Sci Technol 32:2916–2922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koretsky CM, Haas JR, Miller D, Ndenga NT (2006) Seasonal variations in pore water and sediment geochemistry of littoral lake sediments (Asylum Lake, MI, USA). Geochem Trans 7:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kostka JE, Luther GW, Nealson KH (1995) Chemical and biological reduction of Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complexes: potential importance of dissolved Mn(III) as an environmental oxidant. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:885–894Google Scholar
  23. Krivtsov V, Sigee DC (2005) Importance of biological and abiotic factors for geochemical cycling in a freshwater eutrophic lake. Biogeochemistry 74:205–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li B, Ding SM, Fan CX, Zhong JC, Zhang L, Yin HB, Zhao B (2008) Distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in interstitial waters in the sediments of Fubao Bay in Lake Dianchi and their relationships with the activities of microbe and alkaline phosphatase in the surface sediments. J Lake Sci 20:420–427Google Scholar
  25. Li YZ, Xia BC, Zhang JY, Li CH, Zhu WZ (2010) Assessing high resolution oxidation–reduction potential and soluble reactive phosphorus variation across vertical sediments and water layers in Xinghu Lake: a novel laboratory approach. J Environ Sci 22:982–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Linnik PM, Zubenko IB (2000) Role of bottom sediments in the secondary pollution of aquatic environments by heavy-metal compounds. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 5:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luther GW III (2010) The role of one and two electron transfer reactions in forming thermodynamically unstable intermediates as barriers in multi-electron redox reactions. Aquat Geochem 16:395–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Madison AS, Tebo BM, Luther GW (2011) Simultaneous determination of soluble manganese(III), manganese(II) and total manganese in natural (pore)waters. Talanta 84:374–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Madison AS, Tebo BM, Mucci A, Sundby B, Luther GW III (2013) Abundant Mn(III) in porewaters is a major component of the sedimentary redox system. Science 341:875–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahmoud ME, El-Kholy AE, Kassem TS, Obada MK (2012) Adsorptive removal of Mn(II)–Mn(VII) from various aqueous and nonaqueous solutions by using layer-by-layer chemical deposition technique. J Ind Eng Chem 18:2191–2198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Müller B, Wang Y, Wehrli B (2006) Cycling of calcite in hard water lakes of different trophic states. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1678–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Orem WH, Hatcher PG, Spiker EC, Szeverenyi NM, Maciel GE (1986) Dissolved organic matter in anoxic pore waters from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:609–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pakhomova S, Yakushev EV (2011) Manganese and iron at the redox interfaces in the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Oslo Fjord. In: Yakushev EV (ed) Chemical structure of pelagic redox interfaces. Springer, Berlin, pp 67–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schlosser D, Höfer C (2002) Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of Mn2+ in the presence of natural Mn3+ chelators as a novel source of extracellular H2O2 production and its impact on manganese peroxidase. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3514–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schnetger B, Dellwig O (2012) Dissolved reactive manganese at pelagic redoxclines (part I): a method for determination based on field experiment. J Mar Syst 90:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sundby B, Anderson LG, Hall POJ, Iverfeldt Å, Vanderloeff MMR, Westerlund SFG (1986) The effect of oxygen on release and uptake of cobalt, manganese, iron and phosphate at the sediment-water interface. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:1281–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trouwborst RE, Clement BG, Tebo BM, Glazer BT, Luther GW (2006) Soluble Mn(III) in suboxic zones. Science 313:1955–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wallschlaeger D, Desai MVM, Spengler M, Windmöller CC, Wilken RD (1998) How humic substances dominate mercury geochemistry in contaminated flood plain soils and sediments. J Environ Qual 27:1044–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Webb SM, Dick GJ, Bargar JR, Tebo BM (2005) Evidence for the presence of Mn(III) intermediates in the bacterial oxidation of Mn(II). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:5558–5563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wei Y (2012) Spatio-temporal monitoring and status evaluation of water environment in Wangjuan Reservoir, Qingdao. Dissertation, Ocean University of China (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  41. Wei FS, Chen JS, Wu YY, Zheng CJ (1991) Study on the background contents on 61 elements of soils in China. Environ Sci 12:12–19 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  42. Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  43. Wurzbacher CM, Bärlocher F, Grossart HP (2010) Fungi in lake ecosystem. Aquat Microb Ecol 59:125–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yakushev E, Pakhomova S, Sørenson K, Skei J (2009) Importance of the different manganese species in the formation of water column redox zones: observations and modeling. Mar Chem 117:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringQilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences)JinanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education of ChinaOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations