In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated sediments by composite additives of hydroxyapatite and oxides

  • Yanhao Zhang
  • Haohan Zhang
  • Meng Wang
  • Zhibin ZhangEmail author
  • Taha Marhaba
  • Cuizhen Sun
  • Wen ZhangEmail author
Original Article


The in situ immobilization performances of Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cd in the contaminated sediments using additives [hydroxyapatite (HAP), CaO, MgO, and HAP + CaO/MgO] were investigated by European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extraction test, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and heavy metal releasing test. The results of immobilization test showed that 40.70% of Zn, 47.47% of Mn, 70.40% of Pb, and 61.86% of Cd were immobilized in forms of the oxidizable and residual speciation in the sediments applied by composite additives (HAP + CaO or MgO) with each additive’s dosage of 10% of the sediment. The results of TCLP indicated that, compared to the blank samples, nearly 80% of Zn, Pb, Cd, and 50% of Mn were reduced in the leaching solutions using the composite additives. In addition, the heavy metal releasing experiment demonstrated that the releasing amounts of heavy metals in the immobilized sediments were much lower than those in raw sediments, and the equilibrium of metal releasing cost 24–31 days. The results of this work demonstrated that 10% HAP coupled with 10% CaO or 10% MgO is feasible in immobilizing heavy metals and decreasing the releasing risk of heavy metals in sediments.


In situ immobilization Heavy metal-contaminated sediment Hydroxyapatite Calcium oxide Magnesium oxide 



This research was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (no. ZR2018MEE045), Foundation of remediation of contaminated sediment in Shandong Province (nos. 2017-HCZBLY-003, SDHBYF-2012-14), Shandong Key Scientific and Technical Innovation Project (no. 2018YFJH0902), and Research Project of Shandong Environmental Protection Department (no. SDDPPS2018C(402001)006). Yanhao Zhang was very grateful for the support of China Scholarship Council.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Municipal and Environmental EngineeringShandong Jianzhu UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Co-Innovation Center of Green BuildingJinanChina
  3. 3.John A. Reif, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA
  4. 4.Jinan Municipal Engineering Design Group Com., Ltd.JinanChina

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