Advertisement

Chemical assessment of surface water quality in upstream and downstream of Jare Dam, Khuzestan, Iran

  • Lamya NeissiEmail author
  • Parvaneh Tishehzan
  • Mohammad Albaji
Original Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Management of water resources is an important issue for better use of water. In this study surface water quality in two stations, located upstream and downstream of Jare Dam in Zard River, was investigated. Water quality was assessed 5 years before and after constructing the dam by using principal component analysis (PCA). To realize the influence of precipitation on water surface quality, standard precipitation index was measured. To conduct this study, water quality parameters including HCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42−, Cl, EC, TDS and pH were measured during year 2008–2017. The results of PCA show that before constructing the dam at the upstream of the dam the Ca2+, Cl, HCO3, Mg2+ and SO42− at the downstream of the dam, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42− are proportional to principal component 1. EC and HCO3 at the downstream, K+ at upstream are proportional to principal component 2. After constructing the Jare Dam, at the upstream Ca2+ and Cl and at the downstream the HCO3 and Na+ are proportional to principal component 1. SO42− at the upstream and at downstream Mg2+ and pH are proportional to principal component 2. After constructing the dam, less drought enhanced water quality of upstream for irrigation. Because Zard River flows on many formations, the natural resources cause more solutes to be transported to the downstream. Hardness and pollution of surface water has increased at the downstream for irrigation usage which we need to control agricultural activities at the upstream before it changes the water quality in the long term.

Keywords

Water quality Principal components analysis Drought Gachsaran Formation 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Svoboda M, Hayes M, Wood D (2012) Standardized precipitation index user guide. WMO-No. 1090. World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. Bednarek AT (2001) Undamming rivers: a review of the ecological impacts of dam removal. J Environ Manag 27(6):803–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bern CR, Stogner RW (2017) The Niobrara Formation as a challenge to water quality in the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA. J Hydrol Reg Stud 12:181–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouguerne A, Boudoukha AR, Benkhaled AK, Mebarkia AH (2017) Assessment of surface water quality of Ain Zada dam (Algeria) using multivariate statistical techniques. J River Basin Manag 15(2):133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chitsazan M, Faryabi M, Zarrasvandi AR (2014) Evaluation of river–aquifer interaction in the north part of Dezful–Andimeshk district, SW of Iran. Arab J Geosci 8:7177–7189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eugster HP, Jones BF (1979) Behavior of major solutes during closed-basin brine evolution. Am J Sci 279:609–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardie LA, Eugster HP (1970) The evolution of closed basin brines. Mineral Soc Am Spec Pap 3:273–290Google Scholar
  8. Harilal CC, Hashim A, Arun PR, Baji S (2004) Hydrogeochemistry of two rivers of Kerala with special reference to drinking water quality. J Ecol Environ Conserv 10:187–192Google Scholar
  9. Jalali M (2005) Major ion chemistry of groundwaters in the Bahar area, Hamadan, western Iran. Environ Geol 47:763–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johnson KS (2003) Evaporite-karst problems in the United States. In: Johnson KS, Neal JT (eds) Evaporite karst and environmental problems in the United States, vol 109. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Oklahoma, pp 1–20 (Circular) Google Scholar
  11. Kamali Maskooni E, Kompanizare M, Afzali SF (2017) Chemical assessment of dam water irrigation effects on groundwater qualities in Bigherd plain, Fars Province, Iran. J Environ Earth Sci 76:238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Klimchouk A, Andrejchuk V (1996) Environmental problems in gypsum karst terrains. Int J Speleol 25:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McKee TB, Doesken NJ, Kleist J (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. In: Proceedings of the 8th conference on applied climatology, Boston, MA, American Meteorological Society, vol 17(22), pp 179–183Google Scholar
  14. Morid S, Moghaddasi M, Arshad S (2005) Drought index package (Version 2). Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  15. Murray RC (1964) Origin and diagenesis of gypsum and anhydrite. J Sediment Res 34:512–523Google Scholar
  16. Olsen RL, Rick W, Chappell RW, Loftis JC (2012) Water quality sample collection, data treatment and results presentation for principal components analysis a literature review and Illinois River watershed case study. J Water Res 46:3110–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Papizadeh M, Fakour H, Roayaei Ardakani M (2012) Unusual geohydrochemical properties of Golgir sulfur springs resulted in microbioecological deviation in Tembi River. In: Hand book of the first national congress of biological and genetic resource. Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  18. Papizadeh M, Roayaei Ardakani M, Fakour H, Ghaderi G, Firouzei Y (2017) Microbio-ecology and hydro-geochemistry of saline sulfur springs of Ghale-Madreseh, Khuzestan, Iran. J Pollut 3(4):623–637Google Scholar
  19. Petersen W, Bertion L, Callies U, Zorita E (2001) Process identification by principal component analysis of river water-quality data. J Ecol Model 138:193–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Posnjak E (1938) The system CaSO4–H2O. Am J Sci 35A:247–272Google Scholar
  21. Raeisi E, Zare M, Aghdam JA (2013) Hydrogeology of gypsum formations in Iran. J Cave Karst Stud 75(1):68–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Singh KP, Malik A, Mohan D (2004) Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti River (India): a case study. J Water Res 38(18):3980–3992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tizro AT, Voudouris KS (2008) Groundwater quality in the semi-arid region of the Chahardouly basin, West Iran. J Hydrol Process 22:3066–3078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Torabi-Kaveh M (2011) Study of evaporative rocks solubility in Gachsaran Formation in the Chamshir Dam site. Unpublished MSc Dissertation, Bu-Ali Sina University (in Persian) Google Scholar
  25. Torabi-Kaveh M, Heidari M, Miri MM (2012) Karstic features in gypsum of Gachsaran Formation (case study; Chamshir Dam reservoir, Iran). Carbonates Evaporites 27:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tucker ME (2001) Sedimentary petrology, 3rd edn. Black Well, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Yamazaki Y, Muneoka T, Okazawa H, Kimura M, Tsuji O (2017) Evaluation of river water quality with multivariate analysis in clear stream watersheds in agricultural area. J Water Environ Technol 3:86–95.  https://doi.org/10.2965/jwet.16-040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lamya Neissi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Parvaneh Tishehzan
    • 2
  • Mohammad Albaji
    • 2
  1. 1.Irrigation and Drainage EngineeringShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran
  2. 2.Shahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran

Personalised recommendations