Photodegradation of chlorpyrifos, malathion, and dimethoate by sunlight in the Sudan

  • Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed IshagEmail author
  • Azhari Omer Abdelbagi
  • Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad
  • Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh
  • Jang-Hyun Hur
Original Article


The potential of sunlight photolysis in remediation of pesticide-polluted soils in Sudan was studied. Chlorpyrifos, malathion and dimethoate, common pollutants, were exposed to sunlight over glass and soil surfaces with periodic samples drawn for GC and GC-MS analysis. Photo-degradation followed a biphasic model. Alpha half-lives of direct photolysis over glass surface range between 1.99 and 9.36 days while the range in soil surfaces is 1.88–10.77 days. Respective values for indirect photolysis with β-carotene are 0.96–2.40 days whereas for benzophenone are 0.38–2.37 days (not including malathion as starting material was completely lost after 3 days). Values for soil β-carotene sensitized photolysis are 0.85–4.02 days while respective values for soil benzophenone sensitized photolysis are 0.88–3.74 days. Metrological factors did not have a significant impact on photolysis rates. No photoproducts detected in direct photolysis. However, many photoproducts were detected on the indirect sets. Photo-degradation efficiency can be ordered as; benzophenone > β-carotene > direct exposure.


Chlorpyrifos Dimethoate Malathion Photodegradation Sudan 



The authors would like to thank Kangwon National University (KNU), Republic of Korea for their help with GC-MS analysis. The financial support made available by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Sudan is highly acknowledged. The grand number is 30000SDG.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Supplementary material

12665_2019_8064_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4554 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag
    • 1
    Email author
  • Azhari Omer Abdelbagi
    • 1
  • Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad
    • 1
  • Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh
    • 2
  • Jang-Hyun Hur
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KhartoumShambatSudan
  2. 2.Department of Soil and Environment, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KhartoumShambatSudan
  3. 3.Department of Biological Environment, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea

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