Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:112 | Cite as

Mechanical earth modeling and fault reactivation analysis for CO2-enhanced oil recovery in Gachsaran oil field, south-west of Iran

  • Mohammadkazem Amiri
  • Gholam Reza LashkaripourEmail author
  • Siavash Ghabezloo
  • Naser Hafezi Moghaddas
  • Mojtaba Heidari Tajareh
Original Article


There is a huge potential for CO2-EOR and CO2 storage in depleted carbonate reservoirs in the south-west of Iran. In the first step of a CO2-EOR operation, a geomechanical assessment is needed to find out geological conditions, mechanical and strength properties of formation rocks (e.g., reservoir rock and caprock), in situ stress magnitudes and orientation and in situ pore pressure profile. An integrated analysis is performed in this work for geomechanical assessment of a reservoir–caprock system in Gachsaran oil field, south-west of Iran. A one-dimensional mechanical earth model (MEM) is built for 47 wells in the studied field based on drilling and logging data, laboratory and in situ tests. Static elastic and strength parameters of various formation rocks (limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, gray marl and salt) are evaluated from laboratory experiments. Empirical correlations are obtained to convert dynamic rock properties and well-log data to static elastic properties and strength parameters. The initial in situ pore pressure is calculated using modified Eaton method. In situ stresses state is evaluated based on the poroelastic method and calibrated using LOT and XLOT tests. The orientation of in situ stresses is obtained based on image logs. Fractures and faults analysis is performed to determine their orientations. An analytical analysis is performed to estimate the maximum sustainable CO2 injection pressure to prevent fault reactivation. This study presents a comprehensive method to reservoir and caprock characterization using laboratory and well-log data and 1D mechanical earth model. It helps the analysis of the geomechanical problems during CO2-EOR and provides the necessary information to build 3D geomechanical model for numerical simulations.


CO2-EOR Static elastic and strength parameters 1D mechanical earth model Fractures and faults analysis Pore pressure–stress coupling Fault reactivation 



This work is supported by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad under Grant No. 3/37602 (12/03/1394) and Iran National Science Foundation under Grant No. 94810699. The authors wish to thank National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC) for providing field data and permission to use it in this work.


  1. Afsari M, Amani M, Razmgir SAM, Karimi H, Yousefi S (2010) Using drilling and logging data for developing 1d mechanical earth model for a mature oil field to predict and mitigate wellbore stability challenges. In: International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in ChinaGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghajanpour A, Fallahzadeh SH, Khatibi S, Hossain MM, Kadkhodaie A (2017) Full waveform acoustic data as an aid in reducing uncertainty of mud window design in the absence of leak-off test. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 45:786–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alam MM, Hjuler ML, Christensen HF, Fabricius IL (2014) Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery: Experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea. J Pet Sci Eng 122:468–487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altmann JB, Müller TM, Müller BIR, Tingay MR, Heidbach O (2010) Poroelastic contribution to the reservoir stress path. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:1104–1113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altmann JB, Müller BIR, Müller TM, Heidbach O, Tingay MR, Weißhardt A (2014) Pore pressure stress coupling in 3D and consequences for reservoir stress states and fault reactivation. Geothermics 52:195–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amiri M, Lashkaripour GR, Ghabezloo S, Hafezi Moghaddas N, Heidari Tajareh M (2018) 3D spatial model of Biot’s effective stress coefficient using well logs, laboratory experiments and geostatistical method in the Gachsaran oil field, south-west of Iran. Bull Eng Geol Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ampomah W, Balch R, Cather M, Rose-Coss D, Dai Z, Heath J, Dewers T, Mozley P (2016) Evaluation of CO2 storage mechanisms in CO2 enhanced oil recovery sites: application to morrow sandstone reservoir. Energy Fuels 30:8545–8555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ampomah W, Balch RS, Cather M, Will R, Gunda D, Dai Z, Soltanian MR (2017) Optimum design of CO2 storage and oil recovery under geological uncertainty. Appl Energy 195:80–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson EM (1951) The dynamics of faulting. Oliver and Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  10. Angelier J (1994) Fault slip analysis and paleostress reconstruction. In: Hancock PL (ed) Continental Deformation. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 101–120Google Scholar
  11. ASTM C830-00 (2016) Standard test methods for apparent porosity, liquid absorption, apparent specific gravity, and bulk density of refractory shapes by vacuum pressure. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  12. ASTM D2845-08 (2008) Standard test method for laboratory determination of pulse velocities and ultrasonic elastic constants of rock. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  13. ASTM D2938-95 (2005) Standard test method for unconfined compressive strength of intact rock core specimens. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  14. ASTM D3148-02 (2002) Standard test method for elastic moduli of intact rock core specimens in uniaxial compression. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  15. ASTM D3967-16 (2016) Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of intact rock core specimens. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  16. ASTM D7012-14 (2014) Standard test methods for compressive strength and elastic moduli of intact rock core specimens under varying states of stress and temperatures. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  17. Azadpour M, Shad Manaman N (2015) Determination of pore pressure from sonic log: a case study on one of Iran carbonate reservoir rocks. Iran J Oil Gas Sci Technol 4:37–50Google Scholar
  18. Azadpour M, Manaman NS, Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi A, Sedghipour M-R (2015) Pore pressure prediction and modeling using well-logging data in one of the gas fields in south of Iran. J Pet Sci Eng 128:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bachu S (2000) Sequestration of CO2 in geological media: criteria and approach for site selection in response to climate change. Energy Convers Manag 41:953–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bachu S (2016) Identification of oil reservoirs suitable for CO2-EOR and CO2 storage (CCUS) using reserves databases, with application to Alberta, Canada. Int J Greenh Gas Control 44:152–165. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bachu S, Adams JJ (2003) Sequestration of CO2 in geological media in response to climate change: capacity of deep saline aquifers to sequester CO2 in solution. Energy Convers Manag 44:3151–3175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bai M (2014) Risk assessment for CO2 leakage along abandoned wells using a monte carlo simulation in a CO2 sequestration site. Pet Sci Technol 32:1191–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barton CA, Zoback MD, Moos D (1995) Fluid flow along potentially active faults in crystalline rock. Geology 23:683–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Basu A, Mishra DA, Roychowdhury K (2013) Rock failure modes under uniaxial compression, Brazilian, and point load tests. Bull Eng Geol Environ 72:457–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Belmokhtar M, Delage P, Ghabezloo S, Tang AM, Menaceur H, Conil N (2017) Poroelasticity of the Callovo–Oxfordian claystone. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50:871–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Benson SM, Cole DR (2008) CO2 sequestration in deep sedimentary formations. Elements 4:325–331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bordenave ML, Hegre JA (2005) The influence of tectonics on the entrapment of oil in the Dezful Embayment, Zagros Foldbelt, Iran. J Pet Geol 28:339–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bordenave ML, Hegre JA (2010) Current distribution of oil and gas fields in the Zagros Fold Belt of Iran and contiguous offshore as the result of the petroleum systems. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 330:291–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bowers GL, others (1995) Pore pressure estimation from velocity data: Accounting for overpressure mechanisms besides undercompaction. SPE Drill Complet 10:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bozorgi E, Javani D, Rastegarnia M (2016) Development of a mechanical earth model in an Iranian off-shore gas field. J Min Environ 7:37–46Google Scholar
  31. Braun P, Ghabezloo S, Delage P, Sulem J, Conil N (2018) Theoretical analysis of pore pressure diffusion in some basic rock mechanics experiments. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:1361–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brudy M, Zoback MD, Rummel F, Fuchs K (1995) Application of the integrated stress measurement strategy to 9 km depth in the KTB BoreholesGoogle Scholar
  33. Burck J, Marten F, Bals C, Höhne N (2015) The Climate Change Performance Index results 2016. 17Google Scholar
  34. Colucci F, Guandalini R, Macini P, Mesini E, Moia F, Savoca D (2016) A feasibility study for CO2 geological storage in Northern Italy. Int J Greenh Gas Control 55:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dai Z, Viswanathan H, Fessenden-Rahn J, Middleton R, Pan F, Jia W, Lee SY, McPherson B, Ampomah W, Grigg R (2014) Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil Recovery. Energy Procedia 63:7685–7693. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dai Z, Viswanathan H, Middleton R, Ampomah W, Yang C, Jia W, Xiao T, Lee SY, McPherson B, Balch R (2016) CO2 accounting and risk analysis for CO2 sequestration at enhanced oil recovery sites. Environ Sci Technol 50:7546–7554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dai Z, Zhang Y, Bielicki J, Amooie MA, Zhang M, Yang C, Zou Y, Ampomah W, Xiao T, Jia W, Middleton R (2018) Heterogeneity-assisted carbon dioxide storage in marine sediments. Appl Energy 225:876–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Darvish H, Nouri-Taleghani M, Shokrollahi A, Tatar A (2015) Geo-mechanical modeling and selection of suitable layer for hydraulic fracturing operation in an oil reservoir (south west of Iran). J African Earth Sci 111:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diao Y, Zhang S, Wang Y, Li X, Cao H (2015) Short-term safety risk assessment of CO2 geological storage projects in deep saline aquifers using the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project as a case study. Environ Earth Sci 73:7571–7586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eaton BA (1975) The equation for geopressure prediction from well logs. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. Paper SPE 5544Google Scholar
  41. Fjar E, Holt RM, Raaen AM, Risnes R, Horsrud P (2008) Petroleum related rock mechanics. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  42. Gan Q, Elsworth D (2014) Analysis of fluid injection-induced fault reactivation and seismic slip in geothermal reservoirs. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119:3340–3353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ganguli SS, Vedanti N, Dimri VP (2016) 4D reservoir characterization using well log data for feasible CO2-enhanced oil recovery at Ankleshwar, Cambay Basin-A rock physics diagnostic and modeling approach. J Appl Geophys 135:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ghabezloo S, Sulem J (2009) Stress dependent thermal pressurization of a fluid-saturated rock. Rock Mech Rock Eng 42:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ghabezloo S, Sulem J, Guédon S, Martineau F, Saint-Marc F (2008) Poromechanical behaviour of hardened cement paste under isotropic loading. Cem Concr Res 38:1424–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haro HAV, de Paula Gomes MS, Rodrigues LG (2018) Numerical analysis of carbon dioxide injection into a high permeability layer for CO2-EOR projects. J Pet Sci Eng 171:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Heidbach O, Rajabi M, Reiter K, Ziegler M (2016) World stress map 2016. Science 80-:277:1956–1962Google Scholar
  48. Herzog H, Drake E, Adams E (1997) CO2 Capture, Reuse, and Storage TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  49. Higgins SM, Goodwin SA, Bratton TR, Tracy GW (2008) Anisotropic stress models improve completion design in the Baxter Shale. In: SPE Annual Technical Conference and ExhibitionGoogle Scholar
  50. Hillis R (2000) Pore pressure/stress coupling and its implications for seismicity. Explor Geophys 31:448–454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hillis RR (2001) Coupled changes in pore pressure and stress in oil fields and sedimentary basins. Pet Geosci 7:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hou Z, Gou Y, Taron J, Gorke UJ, Kolditz O (2012) Thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling of carbon dioxide injection for enhanced gas-recovery (CO2-EGR): a benchmarking study for code comparison. Environ Earth Sci 67:549–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hung J, Wu J chang (2012) In-situ stress and fault reactivation associated with LNG injection in the Tiechanshan gas field, fold-thrust belt of Western Taiwan. J Pet Sci Eng 96–97:37–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Iran O. Country Analysis Briefs. US Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2015)Google Scholar
  55. Jaeger JC, Cook NGW (1979) Fundamentals of rock mechanics, 3rd edn. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. James GA, Wynd JG (1965) Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian oil consortium agreement area. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 49:2182–2245Google Scholar
  57. Jarahi H, Naraghiaraghi N, Nadalian M (2015) Persian gulf fault: new seismotectonic element on seabed. Can J Basic Appl Sci 03:85–92Google Scholar
  58. Karimnezhad M, Jalalifar H, Kamari M (2014) Investigation of caprock integrity for CO2 sequestration in an oil reservoir using a numerical method. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 21:1127–1137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Keating E, Bacon D, Carroll S, Mansoor K, Sun Y, Zheng L, Harp D, Dai Z (2016) Applicability of aquifer impact models to support decisions at CO2 sequestration sites. Int J Greenh Gas Control 52:319–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kidambi T, Kumar GS (2016) Mechanical Earth Modeling for a vertical well drilled in a naturally fractured tight carbonate gas reservoir in the Persian Gulf. J Pet Sci Eng 141:38–51. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kingdon A, Fellgett MW, Williams JDO (2016) Use of borehole imaging to improve understanding of the in-situ stress orientation of Central and Northern England and its implications for unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Mar Pet Geol 73:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Klein E, Baud P, Reuschle T, Wong TF (2001) Mechanical behavior and failure mode of Bentheim sandstone under triaxial compression. Phys Chem Earth (A) 26:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kühn M, Tesmer M, Pilz P, Meyer R, Reinicke K, Forster A, Kolditz O, Schafer D (2012) CLEAN: project overview on CO2 large-scale enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark natural gas field (Germany). Environ Earth Sci 67:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumar S, Mandal A (2017) A comprehensive review on chemically enhanced water alternating gas/CO2 (CEWAG) injection for enhanced oil recovery. J Pet Sci Eng 157:696–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lacazette A (2009) Paleostress analysis from image logs using pinnate joints as slip indicators. AAPG Bulletin 93:1489–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lackner KS (2003) A guide to CO2 sequestration. Science 300:1677–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mavko G (2005) Conceptual overview of rock and fluid factors that impact seismic velocity and impedance. Stanford Rock Phys Lab 112Google Scholar
  68. Morris A, Ferrill DA, Henderson DB (1996) Slip-tendency analysis and fault reactivation. Geology 24:275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Movahed Z, Junin R, Jeffreys P (2014) Evaluate the borehole condition to reduce drilling risk and avoid potential well bore damages by using image logs. J Pet Sci Eng 122:318–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Movahed Z, Junin R, Bakhtiari HA, Safarkhanlou Z, Movahed AA, Alizadeh M (2015) Introduction of sealing fault in Asmari reservoir by using FMI and RFT in one of the Iranian naturally fractured oil fields. Arab J Geosci 8:10919–10936. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nairn AEM, Alsharhan AS (1997) Sedimentary basins and petroleum geology of the Middle East. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  72. Najibi AR, Ghafoori M, Lashkaripour GR, Asef MR (2017) Reservoir geomechanical modeling: In-situ stress, pore pressure, and mud design. J Pet Sci Eng 151:31–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Niu Z, Li Q, Wei X, Li X, Ma J (2017) Numerical investigation of slippage characteristics of normal and reverse faults under fluid injection and production. Environ Earth Sci 76:502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nordbotten JM, Celia MA (2011) Geological storage of CO2: modeling approaches for large-scale simulation. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ostadhassan M, Zeng Z, Zamiran S (2012) Geomechanical Modeling of an Anisotropic Formation-Bakken Case Study. 46th Meet Am Rock Mech AssocGoogle Scholar
  76. Pan F, McPherson BJ, Dai Z, Jia W, Lee SY, Ampomah W, Viswanathan H, Esser R (2016) Uncertainty analysis of carbon sequestration in an active CO2-EOR field. Int J Greenh Gas Control 51:18–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Perera M, Gamage R, Rathnaweera T, Ranathunga A, Koay A, Choi X (2016) A review of CO2-enhanced oil recovery with a simulated sensitivity analysis. Energies 9:481. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Plasynski S, Litynski J, Rodosta T (2010) Site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geologic formations. Netl.
  79. Plumb R, Edwards S, Pidcock G, Lee D, Stacey B (2000) The mechanical earth model concept and its application to high-risk well construction projects. In: IADC/SPE Drilling ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  80. Preston BL, Jones RN (2006) Climate change impacts on Australia and the benefits of early action to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. CSIRO CanberraGoogle Scholar
  81. Ren B, Duncan IJ (2019) Reservoir simulation of carbon storage associated with CO2 EOR in residual oil zones, San Andres formation of West Texas, Permian Basin, USA. Energy 167:391–401. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ringrose PS, Mathieson AS, Wright IW, Selama F, Hansen O, Bissell R, Saoula N, Midgley J (2013) The In Salah CO2 storage project: lessons learned and knowledge transfer. Energy Procedia 37:6226–6236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rutqvist J, Birkholzer J, Cappa F, Tsang CF (2007) Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow and geomechanical fault-slip analysis. Energy Convers Manag 48:1798–1807. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rutqvist J, Cappa F, Rinaldi AP, Godano M (2014) Modeling of induced seismicity and ground vibrations associated with geologic CO2 storage, and assessing their effects on surface structures and human perception. Int J Greenh Gas Control 24:64–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Safi R, Agarwal RK, Banerjee S (2016) Numerical simulation and optimization of CO2 utilization for enhanced oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Chem Eng Sci 144:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Salati S, van Ruitenbeek FJ, Carranza EJ, van der Meer FD, Tangestani MH (2013) Conceptual modeling of onshore hydrocarbon seep occurrence in the Dezful Embayment, SW Iran. Mar Pet Geol 43:102–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Salemi H, Rezagholilou A, Asadi S, Iglauer S, Sarmadivaleh M (2017) Poroelastic effects of pore pressure-stress coupling on fault reactivation risks during gas injection. In: 51st US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  88. Santarelli FJ, Brown ET (1989) Failure of three sedimentary rocks in triaxial and hollow cylinder compression tests. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 26:401–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schön JH (2015) Physical properties of rocks: fundamentals and principles of petrophysics. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  90. Sepehr M, Cosgrove JW (2005) Role of the Kazerun Fault Zone in the formation and deformation of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran. Tectonics 24:1–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Setudehnia A (1972) Iran du sud-ouest. Lexique Stratigraphique International III, Fascicule 9b. Center National de la, IranGoogle Scholar
  92. Seyyedsar SM, Farzaneh SA, Sohrabi M (2016) Experimental investigation of tertiary CO2 injection for enhanced heavy oil recovery. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 34:1205–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shukla R, Ranjith PG, Choi SK, Haque A (2011) Study of caprock integrity in geosequestration of carbon dioxide. Int J Geomech 11:294–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Streit JE, Hillis RR (2004) Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock. Energy 29:1445–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. StressTensor_v3.0 Pore Pressure.xls.
  96. Tambach TJ, Koenen M, Wasch LJ, van Bergen F (2015) Geochemical evaluation of CO2 injection and containment in a depleted gas field. Int J Greenh Gas Control 32:61–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Thiercelin MJ, Plumb RA (1994) A core-based prediction of lithologic stress contrasts in east Texas formations. SPE Form Eval 9:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Thomas S (2008) Enhanced oil recovery-an overview. Oil Gas Sci Technol l’IFP 63:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tingay M, Reinecker J, Müller B (2008) Borehole breakout and drilling-induced fracture analysis from image logs. World Stress Map Project, 1–8Google Scholar
  100. U.S. Energy Information Administration (2015) Iran EIA. 2015:16Google Scholar
  101. Vilarrasa V, Carrera J, Olivella S (2013) Hydromechanical characterization of CO2 injection sites. Int J Greenh Gas Control 19:665–677. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vilarrasa V, Makhnenko R, Gheibi S (2016) Geomechanical analysis of the influence of CO2 injection location on fault stability. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 8:805–818. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang Z (2000) Dynamic versus static elastic properties of Reservoir rocks. Seismic and acoustic velocities in reservoir rocks. Soc Explor Geophys Tulsa 19:531–539Google Scholar
  104. Worum G, van Wees JD, Bada G, van Balen RT, Cloetingh S, Pagnier H (2004) Slip tendency analysis as a tool to constrain fault reactivation: A numerical approach applied to three-dimensional fault models in the Roer Valley rift system (southeast Netherlands). J Geophys Res Solid Earth 109Google Scholar
  105. Zang A, Stefansson O (2010) Stress Field of the Earth’ s CrustGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhang J (2011) Pore pressure prediction from well logs: methods, modifications, and new approaches. Earth-Science Rev 108:50–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zoback MD (2007) Reservoir geomechanics, critically stressed faults and fluid flow. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 340–377Google Scholar
  108. Zoback MD, Barton CA, Brudy M et al (2003) Determination of stress orientation and magnitude in deep wells. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 40:1049–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammadkazem Amiri
    • 1
  • Gholam Reza Lashkaripour
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siavash Ghabezloo
    • 2
  • Naser Hafezi Moghaddas
    • 1
  • Mojtaba Heidari Tajareh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Laboratoire NavierEcole des Ponts ParisTech, Ifsttar, CNRS UMR 8205Marne la ValléeFrance
  3. 3.National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC)AhwazIran

Personalised recommendations