Advertisement

Spatio-temporal variability of hydrochemical parameters and heavy metals in shallow groundwater of the area of Cebala–Borj–Touil, irrigated with treated wastewater (Tunisia)

  • Mariem DahmouniEmail author
  • Georg Hoermann
  • Omar Jouzdan
  • Mohamed Hachicha
Original Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

The area of Cebala–Borj–Touil, located in northeastern Tunisia, is irrigated with treated wastewater (TWW) for over 26 years. The objectives of this study were to investigate the state of the hydrochemical characteristics and the heavy metals content and their spatial and seasonal variability. This area is affected by a shallow saline groundwater. Depth of this groundwater has been measured and water samples from 16 sites have been collected during two periods, September 2014 and March 2015, which correspond, respectively, to the post-irrigation period and before new cycle of irrigation, after the rainy season. Water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major ions as well as the trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Mn. Concerning the hydrological condition, the depth average was 1.31 m in the summer and 0.70 m in the winter and a maximum 2.01 m at the end of the summer and a coefficient of variability (CV) about 35% in the summer and 78% in the winter indicating more high variability in the winter than in the summer. These values highlight bad drainage condition of the area. For chemical parameters, the water from both sampling periods is characterized by abundance of the major ions in the following order: Na+ >> Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ and Cl > SO42− > HCO3. The mineral content of the groundwater is controlled by different factors: the water source, dilution in the wet season (March), and evaporation in the dry season (September). Spatially, the northeast and the southwest of the sector are more affected due to their relative low altitude. The content of heavy metals exceeds in some sites the values of the Tunisian standards of reuse. During both campaigns, the content of Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), and Iron (Fe) exceeds the limits in the groundwater. For lead (Pb), the exceeding varies between September 2014 and March 2015. Cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) did not exceed Tunisian standards.

Keywords

Treated wastewater Groundwater Contamination Hydrochemistry Heavy metals Cebala–Borj–Touil Tunisia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was carried out in the Research Laboratory of Non-Conventional Waters Use. It is supported by the Tunisian Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research and the German Ministry of Research (BMBF) in the project INRGREF/TUNGER, and the INRGREF/ACSAD convention.

References

  1. Al-Mikhlafi A (2010) Groundwater quality of Yemen volcanic terrain and their geological and geochemical controls. Arab J Geosci 3(2):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (1993) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. Balkema Publishers, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  3. Aquarec Project (2006) Work package 2: guideline for quality standards for water reuse in EuropeGoogle Scholar
  4. Bahri E (2010) Caractérisation et modélisation de la nappe subaffleurante du périmètre irrigué Cebela Borj-Touil. Thesis, University of Jendouba, Medjez el bab, TunisiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Balkhair KS, Ashraf MA (2015) Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in a soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Biol Sci 23(1):S32–S44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks EW, Simmons CT, Love AJ, Cranswick R, Werner AD, Bestland EA, Wood M, Wilson T (2009) Fractured bedrock and saprolite hydrogeologic controls on groundwater/surface-water interaction: a conceptual model (Australia). Hydrogeol J 17(8):1969–1989.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-009-0490-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes KK, Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, Meyer MT, Barber LB (2008) A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—I) groundwater. Sci Total Environ 402:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bixio D, Thoeye C, De Koning J, Joksimovic D, Savic D, Wintgens T, Melin T (2006) Wastewater reuse in Europe. Desalination 187:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Candela L, Fabregat S, Josa A, Suriol J, Vigués N, Mas J (2007) Assessment of soil and groundwater impacts by treated urban wastewater reuse. A case study: application in a golf course (Girona, Spain). Sci Total Environ 374:26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castro CB, Lopes AR, Vaz-Moreira I, Silva EF, Manaia CM, Nunes OC (2014) Wastewater reuse in irrigation: a microbiological perspective on implications in soil fertility and human and environmental health. Environ Int 75:117–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen K, Jiao JJ, Huang J, Huang R (2007) Multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in groundwater in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China. Environ Pollut 147:771–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EMWIS (2007) Mediterranean Wastewater Reuse Report. Mediterranean Wastewater Reuse Working Group (MED WWR WG). http://www.emwis.net/topics/
  13. EPA (2012) Guidelines for water reuse. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. FAO (2012) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Coping with water scarcity. An action framework for agriculture and food security, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Fatta-Kassinos D, Kalavrouziotis IK, Koukoulakis PH (2011) The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. Sci Total Environ 409:3555–3563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Focazio MJ, Kolpin DW, Barnes KK, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Barbere LB, Thurman ME (2008) A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—II) untreated drinking water sources. Sci Total Environ 402:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gatica J, Cytryn E (2013) Impact of treated wastewater irrigation on antibiotic resistance in the soil microbiome. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:3529–3538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gozlan I, Rotstein A, Avisar D (2013) Amoxicillin-degradation products formed under controlled environmental conditions: identification and determination in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere 91:985–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hassen I, Hamzaoui-Azaza F, Bouhlila R (2016) Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia. Environ Monit Assess 188:135.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5124-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Helena B, Pardo R, Vega MM, Barrado E, Fernandez JM, Fernandez L (2000) Temporal evolution of groundwater composition in an alluvial aquifer (Pisuerga river, Spain) by principal component analysis. Water Res 34(3):807–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jilali A, Abbas M, Amar M, Zarhloule Y (2015) Groundwater contamination by wastewater in Figuig Oasis (eastern High Atlas, Morocco). Nat Environ Pollut Technol 14(2):275–282Google Scholar
  22. Kaba M, Mesnage V, Laignel B, Mall I, Stumpp C, Maloszewski P, Faye S (2016) Spatial and seasonal variability of groundwater hydrochemistry in the Senegal North Littoral aquifer using multivariate approach. Environ Earth Sci 75:724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalavrouziotis IK, Kokkinos P, Oron G, Fatone F, Bolzonella D, Vatyliotou M (2013) Current status in wastewater treatment, reuse and research in some Mediterranean countries. Desalin Water Treat.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.860632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karouali F (1999) Study on numerical model of the Chatrou aquifers and the lower valley of Medjerda. In: Higher School of Engineers in Rural Equipment of Medjez el Bab. University of Jendouba, Tunisia (in French) Google Scholar
  25. Kass A, Gavrieli I, Yechielia Y, Vengosh A, Starinsky A (2005) The impact of freshwater and wastewater irrigation on the chemistry of shallow groundwater: a case study from the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. J Hydrol 300:314–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katz BG, Griffin DW (2008) Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the possible movement of contaminants from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin. Environ Geol 55:801–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 152:686–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kharmah R (2007) Optimal management of groundwater pumping: the case of the eocène aquifer, Palestine. Faculty of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus, PalestineGoogle Scholar
  29. Khorasgani MN, Karimi A (2008) A procedure for salinization and waterlogging susceptibility zonation using conditional analysis method and GIS techniques in Central Iran. Int J Agric Biol 10(2):213–216Google Scholar
  30. Knobeloch L, Salna B, Hogan A, Postle J, Anderson H (2000) Blue babies and nitrate-contaminated well water. Environ Health Perspect 108:675–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leal RMP, Herpin U, Fonseca AF, Firme LP, Montes CR, Melfi AJ (2009) Sodicity and salinity in a Brazilian Oxisol cultivated with sugarcane irrigated with wastewater. Agric Water Manag 96:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li H, Shao X, Huang X, Liao L (2007) Advance of research on harm of sewage irrigation in farmland and solving countermeasures. Water Sav Irrig 32(2):14–17 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  33. Li P (2014) Research on groundwater environment under human interferences: a case study from Weining plain, Northwest China. PhD Thesis, Chang’an University, Xi’an (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  34. Li J, Yang Y, Huan H, Li M, Xi B, Lv N, Wu Y, Xie Y, Li X, Yang J (2016) Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment. Sci Total Environ 551:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lu W, Liu WP, Liu RH, Tang GL (2006) Impact of water environment on sustainable utilization of groundwater resources in Dongguan city. J Wuham Univ Sci Technol 29(4):365–367Google Scholar
  36. Makni M (2008) Quantitative and qualitative characterization of groundwater in the lower valley of Medjerda and Oued Chafrou. In: Higher School of Engineers in Rural Equipment of Medjez el Bab. University of Jendouba, Tunisia (in French) Google Scholar
  37. Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2005) The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miri M, Shendi MRA, Ghaffari HR, Aval HE, Ahmadi E, Taban E, Gholizadeh A, Aval MY, Mohammadi A, Azari A (2016) Investigation of outdoor BTEX: concentration, variations, sources, spatial distribution, and risk assessment. Chemosphere 163:601–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ndour NYB, Baudoin E, Guissé A, Seck M, Khouma M, Brauman A (2008) Impact of irrigation water quality on soil nitrifying and total bacterial communities. Biol Fertil Soils 44:797–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Olive P (1976) The system CO2/H2O* CaCO3 and sulfate-sulfide system. Practical handbook. C. R. G., Thonon les BainsGoogle Scholar
  41. Pedrero F, Kalavrouziotis I, Alarcón JJ, Koukoulakis P, Asano T (2010) Use of treated municipal wastewater in irrigated agriculture—review of some practices in Spain and Greece. Agric Water Manag 97:1233–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pereira BFF, He Z, Stoffella PJ, Montes CR, Melfi AJ, Baligar VC (2012) Nutrients and nonessential elements in soil after 11 years of wastewater irrigation. J Environ Qual 41(3):920–927.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raschid-Sally L, Jayakody P (2008) Drivers and characteristics of wastewater agriculture in developing countries—results from a global assessment. Research Report 127. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  44. Rekaya M (1987) Ressources en eau du gouvernorat de l’Ariana sud. Ministry of Agriculture, TunisGoogle Scholar
  45. Shakir E, Zahraw Z, Al-Obaidy AHMJ (2016) Environmental and health risks associated with reuse of wastewater for irrigation. Egypt J Pet.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2016.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shand P, Darbyshire DPF, Gooddy D, Haria AH (2007) Sr-87/Sr-86 as an indicator of flowpaths and weathering rates in the Plynlimon experimental catchments, Wales, UK. Chem Geol 236(3–4):247–265.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taher T, Bruns B, Bamaga O, Al-Weshali A, Van Steenbergen F (2012) Local groundwater governance in Yemen: building on traditions and enabling communities to craft new rules. Hydrogeol J 20(6):1177–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tlili-Zrelli B, Hamzaoui-Azaza F, Gueddari M, Bouhlila R (2013) Geochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater using graphical and multivariate statistical methods. A case study: Grombalia phreatic aquifer (northeastern Tunisia). Arab J Geosci 6:3545–3561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tlili-Zrelli B, Gueddari M, Bouhlila R, Mohamed Naceur O (2015) Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Mateur Alluvial Aquifer (Northern Tunisia). J Hydrogeol Hydrol Eng 5:1Google Scholar
  50. Toze S (2006) Reuse of effluent water-benefits and risks. Agric Water Manag 80:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Travis MJ, Wiel-Shafran A, Weisbrod N, Adar E, Gross A (2010) Greywater reuse for irrigation: effect on soil properties. Sci Total Environ 408:2501–2508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Turki SY (2015) GIS—based multicriteria decision analysis for the delimitation of an agricultural perimeter irrigated with treated wastewater. Agric Water Manag 162:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang Z, Yang G, Chen X, Fe Y, Zhang F, Chen J (2008) Groundwater contamination caused by wastewater irrigation and its controlling countermeasures. Hydrogeol Eng Geol 35(3):99–103 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  54. WHO (2006) Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater, vol 2. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  55. Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M (2013) Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Environ Geochem Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-013-9537-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wu RSS (1999) Eutrophication, water borne pathogens and xenobiotic compounds: environmental risks and challenges. Mar Pollut Bull 39:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wu WY, Liu HL, Chen HH, Hao ZY, Shi YB, Ma FS (2009) Effect of regulation and storage engineering on groundwater salinity in reclaimed water irrigation district. Trans CSAE 25:22–25Google Scholar
  58. Xie Y, Chen T-B, Lei M, Yang J, Guo Q-J, Song B, Zhou X-Y (2011) Spatial distribution of soil heavy metal pollution estimated by different interpolation methods: accuracy and uncertainty analysis. Chemosphere 82:468–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Xu J, Wu L, Chang AC, Zhang Y (2010) Impact of long-term reclaimed wastewater irrigation on agricultural soils: a preliminary assessment. J Hazard Mater 183:780–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariem Dahmouni
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Georg Hoermann
    • 3
  • Omar Jouzdan
    • 4
  • Mohamed Hachicha
    • 2
  1. 1.Higher Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Chott-Meriem, Sousse Univ.SousseTunisia
  2. 2.National Institute of Rural Engineering, Waters and Forest, Carthage Univ.ArianaTunisia
  3. 3.Department Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Institute of Natural Resource ConservationKiel UniversityKielGermany
  4. 4.ACSAD, Arab LeagueDamascusSyria

Personalised recommendations