The effect of successive low-impact development rainwater systems on peak flow reduction in residential areas of Shizhuang, China

  • Zhan-Tang MiaoEmail author
  • Mooyoung Han
  • Shervin Hashemi
Thematic Issue


Against a background of frequent urban flooding and the construction of new so-called “sponge cities” in China, this paper proposes a scheme for Successive Low-Impact Development Rainwater Systems (SLIDRS) in residential areas. The Shizhuang community in China is used as a case study site for a simulated SLIDRS infrastructure based on a stormwater management model (SWMM). Peak flows, peak delay times, infiltration, and water conservation were simulated and analyzed under three different scenarios: pre-development conditions, residential development with the use of a conventional sewer system, and residential development with the use of SLIDRS. The differing effects of development under the following four rainfall conditions were evaluated: 1-year, 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year return periods. Results showed that SLIDRS can decrease peak flows and total runoff volume effectively. Moreover, peak flow times were delayed compared with those resulting from the conventional technology. Therefore, SLIDRS may represent a viable strategy towards solving local urban flooding problems.


Low-impact development Rain garden Rainwater infiltration Stormwater Management Model Sponge City Urban flooding 



This research was supported by: Research on the Framework and Key Technologies of Spongy City Planning System Based on SWMM Hydrological Model through Tianjin University Research Institute of Urban Planning [Grant number 2017GKF-0787]; Science and Technology Support Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) [Grant number NRF-2018K1A3A9A04000025]; Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Public Technology Program based on Environmental Policy, funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) [Grant numbers 2018000200001 and 2016000200007]; Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as Waste to Energy - Recycling Human Resource Development Project; The Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering at Seoul National University. The authors wish to express their gratitude for the support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Baek SS, Choi DH, Jung JW, Lee HJ, Lee H, Yoon KS, Cho KH (2015) Optimizing low impact development (LID) for stormwater runoff treatment in urban area, Korea: experimental and modeling approach. Water Res 86:122–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bamba I, Azuma M, Hamada N, Kubo H, Isoda N (2014) Case study of airborne fungi according to air temperature and relative humidity in houses with semi-basements adjacent to a forested hillside. J Biocontrol Sci 19(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campisano A, Di Liberto D, Modica C, Reitano S (2014) Potential for peak flow reduction by rainwater harvesting tanks. Procedia Eng 89:1507–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cen GP, Shen J, Van RS (1998) Urban design storm type research. J Adv Water Sci 9(1):42–47Google Scholar
  5. Dietz ME, Clausen JC (2005) A field evaluation of raingarden flow and pollutant treatment. Water Air Soil Pollut 167:123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Du JK, Qian L, Rui HY, Zuo TH, Zheng DP, Xu YP, Xu C-Y (2012) Assessing the effects of urbanization on annual runoff and flood events using an integrated hydrological modeling system for Qinhuai River basin, China. J Hydrol 464–465:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Du SQ, Shi PJ, Van Rompaey A, Wen JH (2015) Quantifying the impact of impervious surface location on flood peak discharge in Urban Areas. J Nat Haz 76(3):1457–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hashemi S, Han M, Kim T (2015a) Identification of urine scale problems in urinals and the solution using rainwater. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 5(2):322–329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hashemi S, Han M, Kim T (2015b) The effect of material and flushing water type on urine scale formation. Water Sci Technol 72(11):2027–2033. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hashemi S, Han M (2017a) Control of urine odor in different sanitation practices and its implication on water saving. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 7(1):156–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hashemi S, Han M (2017b) Methods for controlling stored urine odor in resource-oriented sanitation. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 7(3):507–514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hashemi S (2018) Study on the resource circulated sanitation (RCS) using nitrifying microorganisms. Dissertation, Seoul National UniversityGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoffa CR, Prokopy LS, Babin N, Turner AJ (2014) Adoption, maintenance and diffusion of stormwater best management practices: rain barrels. In: Proceedings of the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium, 7 August 2014, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  14. Ishimatsu K, Ito K, Mitani Y, Tanaka Y, Sugahara T, Naka Y (2017) Use of rain gardens for stormwater management in urban design and planning. J Landsc Ecol Eng 13(1):205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ismail AF, Sapari N, Abdul Wahab MM (2014) Vegetative swale for treatment of stormwater runoff from construction site. Pertanika J Sci Technol 22:55–64Google Scholar
  16. Javaheri A, Babbar-Sebens M (2014) On comparison of peak flow reductions, flood inundation maps, and velocity maps in evaluating effects of restored wetlands on channel flooding. Ecol Eng 73:132–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jennings AA, Adeel AA, Hopkins A, Litofsky AL, Wellstead SW (2013) Rain Barrel—Urban garden stormwater management performance. J Environ Eng 139(5):757–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jia HF, Ma HT, Sun ZX, Yu SW, Ding YW, Liang Y (2014) A closed urban scenic river system using stormwater treated with LID-BMP technology in a revitalized historical district in China. Ecol Eng 71:448–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jia HF, Yao HR, Tang Y, Yu SL, Field R, Tafuri AN (2015) LID-BMPs planning for urban runoff control and the case study in China. J Environ Manag 149:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keifer CJ, Chu HH (1957) Synthetic storm pattern for drainage design. J Hydraul Div 83:1–25Google Scholar
  21. Knight EMP, Hunt WF, Winston RJ (2013) Side-by-side evaluation of four level spreader–vegetated filter strips and a swale in eastern North Carolina. J Soil Water Conserv 68(1):60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee BY, Wei HY (2008) Building construction part 1. China Building Industry Press, Beijing, pp 187–189Google Scholar
  23. Lee JY, Lee MJ, Han MY (2015) A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs. J Environ Manag 152:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu D, Qin CQ (2009) Influence on rainfall run-off due to urbanization in Wuhan City of China, 182–184.
  25. Miller JD, Kim H, Kjeldsen TR, Packman J, Grebby S, Dearden R (2014) Assessing the impact of urbanization on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment using historical change in impervious cover. J Hydrol 515:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. National Standard of the People’s Republic of China (2016) Code for design of outdoor wastewater engineering GB 50014 – 2006. Standardization Administration for the People’s Republic of China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  27. Ogden FL, Raj Pradhan N, Downer CW, Zahner JA (2011) Relative importance of impervious area, drainage density, width function, and subsurface storm drainage on flood runoff from an Urbanized catchment. Water Resour Res 47(12):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qin HP, Li ZX, Fu GT (2013) The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics. J Environ Manag 129:577–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rossman LA (2010) Storm water management model user’s Manual —Version 5.0, United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/R-05/040Google Scholar
  30. Seo YW, Choi NJ, Park DY (2012) Effect of connecting rain barrels on the storage size reduction. Hydrol Process 26:3538–3551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sin J, Jun C, Zhu JH, Yoo C (2014) Evaluation of flood runoff reduction effect of LID (Low Impact Development) based on the decrease in CN: case studies from Gimcheon Pyeonghwa district, Korea. 12th International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, CCWI2013, Procedia Eng 70:1531–1538Google Scholar
  32. Tian SG (2013) Effect analysis on rainwater conservation benefit of concave herbaceous field in Jinan City. J Adv Mat Res 726–731:3685–3689Google Scholar
  33. Van Woert ND, Rowe DB, Andresen JA, Rugh CL, Fernandez RT, Xiao L (2005) Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth. J Environ Qual 34:1036–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang BK (2011) Infrastructure programming for the urban planning. Tianjin University Press, Tianjin, pp 56–65Google Scholar
  35. Yang HB, Dick WA, McCoy EL, Phelan PL, Grewal PS (2013) Field evaluation of a new biphasic rain garden for stormwater flow management and pollutant removal. Ecol Eng 54:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019
corrected ​publication ​January 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchitectureTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations