Carbendazole lithospheric adsorption, Saccharum officinarum-based remediation and microbial degradation in heterogeneously composed soils

  • Khuram Shahzad AhmadEmail author
Original Article


Benzimidazole-based fungicide methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) has been assessed for its adsorptive pattern in seven soils of variable composition via batch equilibrium process. Adsorbed MBC expressed variable affinity towards the soil with linear adsorption coefficient (Kd) ranging between 11 and 59 µg mL−1 and Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) ranging between 2.55 and 6.22 µg mL−1. Weaker bonding between MBC and selected soils was reflected via negative values of ∆G. Furthermore, statistical evaluation exhibited that soil organic matter and adsorption varied in a direct proportionality (R2 = 0.75) while pH of the soils and adsorption expressed an inverse relationship for all soils (R2 = − 0.81 and p = 0.02). MBC-adsorbed soils were further remediated in a cost-effective assay through the utilization of concentrated sulphuric acid-activated Saccharum officinarum biomass. Remediation assays showed 51% and 68% of MBC removal achieved with 5 and 7.5 ppm. Furthermore, microbial communities were also utilized for biodegradation of MBC in which A. niger and P. chrysogenum succeeded all microbes in removing MBC in water samples (89%). One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed the significance of the results. Current investigation presents a complete account of MBC surficial behaviour in soils, its sustainable management at macro scale and MBC biodegradation at microscale. This investigation can be further extended to the metabolite exploration and use of current managerial modes for those metabolites’ removal.


Fungicide Soil composition Organic matter Sugarcane husk Microbial degradation 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesFatima Jinnah Women UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

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