Abrupt monsoonal shifts over the precessional cycles documented in Yongxing Cave in China during the antepenultimate glacial period
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Precession is the major orbital control of monsoon intensity, but the monsoonal response to the transition between precessional cycles has yet to be explored. Here, we present an Asian Summer Monsoon history that spans 327.7–280.5 ka BP based on a 230Th-dated and centennially resolved multi-proxy speleothem record from Yongxing Cave, central China. The δ18O profile, a proxy of monsoon intensity, follows the summer insolation changes, with three abrupt shifts occurring at precessional transitions. These shifts are supported by the stalagmite δ13C, grey-level and petrography analysis, indicating a coherent link between the karst processes and monsoon changes. Evidence from the coeval rapid changes in atmospheric CH4 and forest evolution records within dating errors suggests a wider regional signal of monsoon changes. The weak monsoon intervals are temporally consistent with the ice-rafted debris layers in the North Atlantic, indicating a strong coupling of the high- and low-latitude climate systems. We speculate that the abrupt monsoonal shifts are initiated by the south–north shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone associated with the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and further amplified by land cover. In addition, the rates and magnitudes of insolation changes modify monsoon shifts, thus indicating the abrupt monsoonal shift as a result of an interaction of orbital and millennial forcing.
KeywordsChinese stalagmite Asian Monsoon Abrupt shifts Precession cycle Interaction
The authors are grateful to the Editor-in-Chief Dr. Dörhöfer and the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments which significantly improved the manuscript. This work was supported by grants of National Nature Science Foundation of China (41130210, 41072126 and 41572340), Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB953804) and US Nature Science Foundation (1103403).
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