Legume intake and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
- 55 Downloads
It is known that diet plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the knowledge on the role of different food groups such as legumes is not enough.
We designed this study to assess the relationship between legume intake and risk of NAFLD in framework of a case-control study among Tehrani adults. One hundred and ninety-six newly diagnosed patients with NAFLD and 803 controls were studied, and their dietary intake was assessed using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of NAFLD per increase of one serving/week dietary legumes, lentil, and beans adjusting for potential confounders.
In energy-adjusted model, greater intake of legumes, lentils, and beans was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD. These risk associations remained significant after adjusting for all known risk factors of NAFLD. OR of NAFLD in adjusted models for higher dietary intake of legumes, lentils, and beans were 0.73 (0.64–0.84), 0.61 (0.46–0.78), and 0.35 (0.17–0.74), respectively.
Our findings suggest that higher intake of total legumes (beans, lentils, and peas) was associated with lower risk of NAFLD.
KeywordsBean Legumes Lentil Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
This study is related to the project NO. 1396/114499 From Student Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
The “Student Research Committee” and “Research and Technology Chancellor” in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences financially supported this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
AB, FT, TE, GS, EH, HP, and AH declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner conforming to the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on Springer. com. The study was approved by the ethics committee of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
The authors are solely responsible for the data and the content of the paper. In no way, the Honorary Editor-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, or the printer/publishers are responsible for the results/findings and content of this article.
- 2.Duseja A, Singh SP, Saraswat VA et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome-position paper of the Indian National Association for the Study of the Liver, Endocrine Society of India, Indian College of Cardiology and Indian Society of Gastroenterology. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2015;5:51–68.Google Scholar
- 5.Lazo M, Clark JM. The epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a global perspective. Semin Liver Dis 2008;28:339-50.Google Scholar
- 7.Moghaddasifar I, Lankarani K, Moosazadeh M, et al. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its related factors in Iran. Int J Organ Transplant Med. 2016;7:149–60.Google Scholar
- 9.Valenti L, Dongiovanni P, Piperno A, et al. α1-antitrypsin mutations in NAFLD: high prevalence and association with altered iron metabolism but not with liver damage. Hepatology. 2006;44:857–64.Google Scholar
- 14.Emamat H, Foroughi F, Eini-Zinab H, Taghizadeh M, Rismanchi M, Hekmatdoost A. The effects of onion consumption on treatment of metabolic, histologic, and inflammatory features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2016;15:25.Google Scholar
- 19.Papanikolaou Y, Fulgoni VL 3rd. Bean consumption is associated with greater nutrient intake, reduced systolic blood pressure, lower body weight, and a smaller waist circumference in adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27:569–76.Google Scholar
- 23.Food and Nutrition Information Center, US Department of Agriculture: Food composition table (FCT). Beltsville, MD. 2009. www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Accessed 27 June 2011.
- 24.Azizi F. Legume intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in adults. Arch Iran Med. 2012;15:538–44.Google Scholar
- 26.Kang R, Kim M, Chae JS, Lee S-H, Lee JH. Consumption of whole grains and legumes modulates the genetic effect of the APOA5-1131C variant on changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V concentrations in patients with impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Trials. 2014;15:100.Google Scholar
- 28.Ferolla SM, Ferrari TC, Lima ML, et al. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68:11–7.Google Scholar
- 33.Lejeune MP, Westerterp KR, Adam TC, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, 24-h satiety, and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein diet and measured in a respiration chamber. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Anderson GH, Woodend D. Effect of glycemic carbohydrates on short-term satiety and food intake. Nutr Rev. 2003;61 Suppl-5:S17–26.Google Scholar
- 36.Paschos P, Paletas K. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. Hippokratia. 2009;13:9.Google Scholar
- 41.Villegas R, Gao Y-T, Yang G, et al. Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:162–7.Google Scholar
- 42.Sievenpiper JL, Kendall CW, Esfahani A, et al. Effect of non-oil-seed pulses on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled experimental trials in people with and without diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1479–95.Google Scholar
- 43.Zhang Z, Lanza E, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. A high legume low glycemic index diet improves serum lipid profiles in men. Lipids. 2010;45:765–75.Google Scholar