Association between metabolic syndrome and hepatobiliary cancers: A case-control study
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The incidence of hepatobiliary cancer is steadily increasing. It is unclear if this rise is related to increasing trends in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle changes.
A case-control study was performed using the Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Cases with a diagnosis of liver, bile duct, and gallbladder cancers were matched in a 1:2 fashion with controls and analyzed for potential associations between hepatobiliary cancer and obesity/metabolic syndrome.
Four thousand two hundred and eighty-seven patients (62% male, 38% female) with hepatobiliary cancers were matched with 8574 controls. On univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, alcohol consumption, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension were associated with hepatobiliary cancer. Statin use and non-smoking status had an inverse association. On multivariate analysis, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and insulin use were associated with the risk of hepatobiliary cancer. Statin use and non-smoking status were protective. On modeling BMI, each of diabetes and hypertension as a single covariate, there was a significant association with hepatobiliary cancer (1.59 [1.49–1.69], p < 0.001) which persisted despite adjusting for increasing age (1.006 [1005–1.006], p < 0.001) and background liver cirrhosis (1.037 [1.03–1.044], p < 0.001).
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with the risk of hepatobiliary cancer. Statin use seems to be protective.
KeywordsHepatobiliary cancer Hepatocellular cancer Cholangiocarcinoma Metabolic syndrome Diabetes Obesity
This research was funded by a grant from the South Staffordshire Medical Centre Charitable Trust (The Rotha Abraham Bequest).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
SM, and RM declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner conforming to the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on Springer.com.
The authors are solely responsible for the data and the content of the paper. In no way, the Honorary Editor-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, or the printer/publishers are responsible for the results/ findings and content of this article.
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