Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 439–445 | Cite as

Burden of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in India, 1990–2016

  • Dyuti Shah
  • Govind K. Makharia
  • Uday C. Ghoshal
  • Sanskriti Varma
  • Vineet Ahuja
  • Susan HutflessEmail author
Short Report


There is no comprehensive report on the burden of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases in India. In this study, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) rates of GI and liver diseases in India from 1990 to 2016 using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, which systematically reviews literature and reports for international disease burden trends. Despite a decrease in the overall burden from GI infectious disorders since 1990, they still accounted for the majority of DALYs in 2016. Among noncommunicable disorders (NCDs), there were increases in the prevalence and mortality rates for pancreatitis, liver cancer, paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer, vascular intestinal disorders, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence and mortality rates decreased for peptic ulcer disease, hernias, appendicitis, and stomach and esophageal cancer. For gastritis and duodenitis, cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, and gallbladder and biliary tract diseases, there was an increase in prevalence but a decrease in mortality while the opposite was true for pancreatic cancer (decreased prevalence, increased mortality). Indian gastroenterologists and hepatologists must continue to attend to the large majority of patients with infectious diseases while also managing the increasing number of GI and liver diseases, noncommunicable nonmalignant and malignant.


Global burden of diseases Prevalence Mortality Infectious diseases Non-communicable diseases Epidemiology Gastroenterology Hepatology 



Sources of support: Dr. Hutfless received support from the Ludwig-Bayless award.

Author contributions

Study concept and protocol design: Shah, Hutfless

Analysis of data: Shah

Preparing the initial draft of the manuscript: Shah

Critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content: Shah, Makharia, Ghoshal, Varma, Ahuja, Hutfless

Study supervision: Hutfless

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

DS, GKM, UCG, SV, VA, and SH declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement

The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner to conform to the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on


The authors are solely responsible for the findings and the content of the paper. In no way, the Honorary Editor-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, and the printer/publishers are responsible for the results/findings and the content of this article.

Supplementary material

12664_2018_892_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (254 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 254 kb)


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.All India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of GastroenterologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of GastroenterologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia
  4. 4.Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Gastrointestinal Epidemiology Research Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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