Burden of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in India, 1990–2016
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There is no comprehensive report on the burden of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases in India. In this study, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) rates of GI and liver diseases in India from 1990 to 2016 using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, which systematically reviews literature and reports for international disease burden trends. Despite a decrease in the overall burden from GI infectious disorders since 1990, they still accounted for the majority of DALYs in 2016. Among noncommunicable disorders (NCDs), there were increases in the prevalence and mortality rates for pancreatitis, liver cancer, paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer, vascular intestinal disorders, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence and mortality rates decreased for peptic ulcer disease, hernias, appendicitis, and stomach and esophageal cancer. For gastritis and duodenitis, cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, and gallbladder and biliary tract diseases, there was an increase in prevalence but a decrease in mortality while the opposite was true for pancreatic cancer (decreased prevalence, increased mortality). Indian gastroenterologists and hepatologists must continue to attend to the large majority of patients with infectious diseases while also managing the increasing number of GI and liver diseases, noncommunicable nonmalignant and malignant.
KeywordsGlobal burden of diseases Prevalence Mortality Infectious diseases Non-communicable diseases Epidemiology Gastroenterology Hepatology
Sources of support: Dr. Hutfless received support from the Ludwig-Bayless award.
Study concept and protocol design: Shah, Hutfless
Analysis of data: Shah
Preparing the initial draft of the manuscript: Shah
Critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content: Shah, Makharia, Ghoshal, Varma, Ahuja, Hutfless
Study supervision: Hutfless
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
DS, GKM, UCG, SV, VA, and SH declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors declare that the study was performed in a manner to conform to the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on Springer.com.
The authors are solely responsible for the findings and the content of the paper. In no way, the Honorary Editor-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, and the printer/publishers are responsible for the results/findings and the content of this article.
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