Sialoendoscopy: Review and Nuances of Technique
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Sialoendoscopy is a nuanced technique of transluminal management of obstructive and nonneoplastic pathology of the major salivary glands. Techniques have been refined in the last two decades due to advances in optical and endoscopic instrumentation. This minimally invasive technique has both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Obstructive salivary gland disease due to mineralized stones causes the majority of salivary duct-related pathology. Mucus plugs and strictures are the other causes. Submandibular gland sialolithiasis comprises the majority of salivary ductal pathology, with less than ten percent of obstructive symptoms related to parotid gland.
The aim of this review is to comprehensively understand the scope of practice, the methodology of management, and the techniques for a successful outcome in sialoendoscopy. Anatomy of the salivary glands and the ductal system is reviewed for a successful outcome. Guidance for patient selection, indications, investigations, and preprocedure preparation for sialoendoscopy are discussed. Algorithms and an instrument checklist are provided in table format in the manuscript for clinical utility.
The author simplifies the various systems of sialoendoscopes and the utility of the instruments. The future of transluminal and intraluminal salivary procedures is within the oral and maxillofacial surgical realm with simulators and multidimensional imaging and navigational advances.
KeywordsSialoendoscopy Sialolithiasis Salivary stenosis Endoscopic surgery Sialadenitis Salivary ducts
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