Systematic Review of Lesser Known Parasitoses: Maxillofacial Dirofilariasis
- 32 Downloads
Dirofilariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries caused by about 40 different species of dirofilari. Dirofilariasis of the oral cavity is extremely rare and is usually seen as mucosal or submucosal nodules. We also present a case of dirofilariasis of the mandibular third molar region submucosally in a 26 year old male patient.
To identify, enlist and analyze the cases of dirofilariasis in maxillofacial region reported worldwide so as to understand the clinical presentation and encourage the consideration of helminthic infections as a possible differential diagnosis in maxillofacial swellings.
Two authors KC and SK independently searched the electronic database of PUBMED, OVID, Google Scholar and manual search from other sources. A general search strategy was planned and anatomic areas of interest identified. The search was made within a bracket of 1 month by the independent authors KC and SK who assessed titles, abstracts and full texts of articles based on the decided keywords. The final selection of articles was screened for the cases that were reported in the maxillofacial region including the age, gender, site of occurrence and region of the world reported in. A geographic distribution of the reported cases was tabulated.
A total number of 265, 97, 1327, 3 articles were identified by PubMed, Ovid, GoogleScholar and manual search respectively. The final articles were manually searched for duplicates and filtered according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria which led to a final list of 58 unique articles that were included in the study. In total 99 cases were identified.
Although intraoral dirofilarial infections are extremely uncommon, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intraoral or facial swelling that does not completely respond to routine therapy especially in patients from endemic areas.
KeywordsDirofilariasis Maxillofacial Parasitosis Diro Filariasis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 3.Avdiukhina TI, Supriaga VG (1997) Dirofilariasis in the Community of Independent States countries: analysis of cases from 1915 to 1996. MedskParazitol 4:3–7Google Scholar
- 5.Pampigilone S, CanestriTrotti G (1995) Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: a review of world literature. Parassitologia 37:149–193Google Scholar
- 6.Pampiglione S, Rivasi F (2000) Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: an update of world literature from 1995 to 2000. Parassitologia 42:231–254Google Scholar
- 9.Sabu L, Devada K, Subramanian H (2005) Dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in Kerala. Indian J Med Res 121:691–693Google Scholar
- 12.Nadgir S et al (2001) Sunconjunctival dirofilariasis in India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32:244–246Google Scholar
- 13.Pane C (1864) No ta su un elminto nematoide. Ann Acad Aspiranti 4:32–34Google Scholar
- 14.Martin PH, Lefebvre MG (1995) Malaria and climate: sensitivity of malaria potential transmission to climate. Ambio 24:200–207Google Scholar
- 17.Senthilvel K et al (1999) A case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in a woman in Kerala. Ind Vet J 76:263–264Google Scholar
- 27.Premakumar P, Nair V, Nair B, Thomas S (2014) Discussion of a case of Dirofilariasis presenting as a nodular mass. Int J Medical Health Sci 3:223–225Google Scholar
- 28.Krishna AS, Bilahari N, Savithry (2015) Subcutaneous infraorbitaldirofilariasis. Indian J Dermato 60:420Google Scholar
- 31.Attygalle D, Dissanaike AS (1970) The third case of human infection with dirofilaria sp. from Ceylon. HD Srivastava Commemvolume Izatnagar 453–454Google Scholar
- 32.Dissanaike AS, Abeyewickreme W, Wijesundera MD (1997) Human dirofilariasis caused by dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in srilanka. Parassitologia 39:375–382Google Scholar
- 33.Ratnatunga N, Wijesundera MS (1999) Histopathological diagnosis of subcutaneous Dirofilariarepens infection in humans. Southeast Asian J Troop Med Public Health 30:370–375Google Scholar
- 34.Pitakotuwage TN, Mendis BR, Edirisinghe JS (1999) Dirofilaria repens infection of the oral mucosa and the cheek. A case report. Dental Symposium Sri Lanka. RJ–CA: 125Google Scholar
- 36.Jayasinghe RD, Gunawardane SR, Sitheeque MM (2015) A Case Report on Oral Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis. Case Rep Infect Dis. Article Id 648278, 1–4Google Scholar
- 38.Pampiglione S, Fruttaldo L, Canestri TG (1993) Human dirofilariasis: extraction of the living nematode from the upper lip. Pathologica 85:515–519Google Scholar
- 39.Pampiglione S, Cagno MC, Savalli E, Guidetti F (1996) Human muscle dirofilariasis of difficult diagnosis. Pathologica 88(2):97–101Google Scholar
- 40.Cancrini G, Favia G, Merulla R et al (1998) Traditional and innovative tools to diagnose 8 new cases of human dirofilariosis occurred in Italy. Parassitologia 40:24Google Scholar
- 41.MaximovaT Bogachkina SI, Oshevskaya EA (1991) Human nematodoses in Tula region. Kollekt Avtorov 55:56Google Scholar
- 42.Postnova VF et al (1997) Dirofilariasis in man new cases. Medsk Parazitol 1:6–9Google Scholar
- 43.Laura H et al (2007) Human Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis. Russia Emerg Infect Dis 13:150–152Google Scholar
- 44.Triantafillopoulos E (1952) A case of human infection with Nematode in Messinia. Arch iatr Epist 8:58–59Google Scholar
- 45.Markopoulos AK, Trigonidis G, Papanayotou P (1990) Submucous dirofilarriasis involving cheek. Report of a case. Ann Dent 49:34–35Google Scholar
- 46.Auer H et al (1997) Einseltener Falleiner Dirofilariarepens infestation des Nebenhodens. Mitt ÖsterrGesTropenmed Parasitol 19:53–58Google Scholar
- 48.Lapierre J et al (1982) Dirofilariasis in humans. Report of a case with localization in the cheek. Sem Hop 24(58):1575–1577Google Scholar
- 49.Abou-Bacar A, Diallo M, Waller J, Cribier B, Candolfi E (2007) Human subcutaneous dirofilariosis due to Dirofilariarepens. A case diagnosed in Strasbourg, France. Bull SocPathol Exot 100:269–270Google Scholar
- 50.Rivière D, Vatin L, Morvan J-B, Cathelinaud O (2014) Dirofilariose intramassétérine. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 131(6):379–380Google Scholar
- 51.EW, Tsang WM, Chan KF. Human dirofilariasis of the buccal mucosa: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32: 104-106Google Scholar
- 53.Ahmed A, Cascarini L, Goodman A et al (2010) Cutaneous dirofilariasis affecting the parotid duct: a case report. Maxillofacial 10:107–109Google Scholar
- 54.Kaouech E, Becheur M, Cheikh M (2010) Subcutaneous dirofilariasis of the upper lip in Tunisia Sante 20:47–48Google Scholar
- 57.Daroit NB et al. (2016) Submucosal nodule in buccal mucosa. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. pii: S2212–4403Google Scholar
- 61.Vélez-Pérez A et al. (2016) Dirofilariasis Presenting as an Infiltrative Mass in the Right Buccal Space. Int J Surg PatholGoogle Scholar
- 62.Maraghi S et al (2006) Human dirofilariasis due to dirofilaria repens in ahvaz—iran: a report of three cases. Pak J Med Sci 22:211–213Google Scholar
- 64.Fuehrer HP et al. Dirofilaria in humans, dogs, and vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—from imported pathogens to the endemicity of dirofilaria repens. PLOS Negl Trop Dis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004547
- 66.Enghelshtein AS, Zaporozhets GI (1973) A case detection of Dirofilaria repens. Medskaya Parazit 42:358Google Scholar
- 68.Favia G (2000) Molecular diagnosis of Dirofilaria repens is not a dream. Letter to the editor. Diagn Microbiol Inf Dis. 37: 81Google Scholar
- 69.Regional Strategy (2015) From Malaria Control to Elimination in the WHO European Region 2006–2015. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen 1–50Google Scholar
- 73.Marconcini A, Magi M, Contin BH (1993) Efficacy of ivermectin in preventing Dirofilariarepens infestation in dogs naturally exposed to contagion. Parassitologia 35:67–71Google Scholar