Advertisement

Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 112–123 | Cite as

Buccal Fat Pad-Derived Stem Cells for Repair of Maxillofacial Bony Defects

  • Mitsu Meshram
  • Sonal Anchlia
  • Harsh Shah
  • Siddharth Vyas
  • Jigar Dhuvad
  • Lalit Sagarka
Original Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad-derived stem cells (BFPSCs) as a source for full thickness bone defect repair secondary to pathology in maxilla or mandible.

Methods

Fat-derived stem cells were isolated from buccal fat pad, differentiated into osteocytes in osteogenic medium, and seeded onto human bone defects. Autologous buccal fat pad was harvested and BFPSCs cultured within 4–6 weeks. Bone defects secondary to enucleation of pathologic cyst or tumors were reconstructed with osteogenically differentiated fat-derived stem cells. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and genotypic and phenotypic marker analysis, and histomorphometric measurements of new bone were performed.

Results

Maxillofacial bone defects were successfully reconstructed by BFPSCs, which after implantation at an in vivo site yielded faster osseous regeneration. BFPSCs were associated with superior bone density formation, better blending of margins with enhanced bone trabecular formation, well-organized and well-vascularized lamellar bone with Haversian channels and osteocytes resulting in superior functional and cosmetic results with better quality of life and with significant decrease in secondary complications.

Conclusion

Buccal fat pad is an ideal tool in the hands of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for tissue engineering and clinical use requiring bone tissue growth and repair, secondary to large osseous defects. This study demonstrates the feasibility of reconstructing bony defects with fat-derived stem cells.

Keywords

Buccal fat pad Buccal fat pad-derived stem cells Enucleation Tissue engineering 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to acknowledge the fruitful contribution of our former H.O.D., Prof. Dr. Babu S. Parmar, to this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

Conflict of interest

The authors hereby wish to state that this paper does not have any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Gosain AK (2001) Distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton. Plast Reconstr Surg 107(1):278–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cohen SR, Burstein FD (1999) The role of distraction osteogenesis in the management of craniofacial disorders. Ann Acad Med Singapore 28(5):728–738Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pittenger MF et al (1999) Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 284(5411):143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schantz JT et al (2003) Repair of calvarial defects with tissue engineered bone grafts I. Evaluation of osteogenesis in a 3D culture. Tissue Eng 9(Suppl 1):S113–S126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schantz JT et al (2003) Repair of calvarial defects with tissue-engineered bone grafts II Evaluation of cellular efficiency in vivo. Tissue Eng 9(Suppl 1):S127–S139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rohner D et al (2003) In vivo efficacy of bone-marrow-coated polycaprolactone scaffolds for the reconstruction of orbital defects in the pig. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 66(2):574–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lendeckel S et al (2004) Autologous stem cells (adipose) and fibrin glue to treat widespread traumatic calvarial defects: case report. J Cranio Surg 32(6):370–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zuk PA et al (2001) Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Eng 7(2):211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Ugarte DA et al (2003) Comparison of multi-lineage cells from human adipose tissue and bone marrow. Cells Tissues Organs 174(3):101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Banfi A et al (2000) Proliferation kinetics and differentiation potential of ex vivo expanded human bone marrow stromal cells: implications for their use in cell therapy. Exp Hematol 28(6):707–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Auquier P et al (1995) Comparison of anxiety, pain and discomfort in two procedures of hematopoietic stem cell collection: leukacytapheresis and bone marrow harvest. Bone Marrow Transpl 16(4):541–547Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nishimori M et al (2002) Health-related quality of life of unrelated bone marrow donors in Japan. Blood 99(6):1995–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Graziano A, Papaccio G (2008) Dental pulp stem cells: a promising tool for bone regeneration. Stem Cell Rev 4(1):21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guasch EF (2011) Adipose stem cells from buccal fat pad and abdominal adipose tissue for bone tissue engineering. Ph.d. dissertation European MentionGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Silva H, Conboy IM (2008) Aging and stem cell renewal stem book. StemBook. Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge (MA)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sandor GK et al (2013) Adipose stem cell tissue-engineered construct used to treat large anterior mandibular defect: a case report and review of the clinical application of good manufacturing practice-level adipose stem cells for bone regeneration. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 71(5):938–950.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2012.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Strem BM, Hicok KC, Zhu M, Wulur I, Alfonso Z, Schreiber RE et al (2005) Multipotential differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Keio J Med 54(3):132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gronthos S, Franklin DM, Leddy HA, Robey PG, Storms RW, Gimble JM (2001) Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. J Cell Physiol 189(1):54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wan CD, Cheng R, Wang HB, Liu T (2008) Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissues in a rat orthotopic liver transplantation model. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 7(1):29–33Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thesleff T, Lehtimäki K, Niskakangas T et al (2011) Cranioplasty with adipose-derived stem cells and biomaterial: a novel method for cranial reconstruction. Neurosurgery 68(6):1535–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Follmar KE, Decroos FC, Prichard HL et al (2006) Effects of glutamine, glucose, and oxygen concentration on the metabolism and proliferation of rabbit adipose derived stem cells. Tissue Eng 12:3525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rehman J, Traktuev D, Li J, Merfeld-Clauss S, Temm-Grove CJ, Bovenkerk JE et al (2004) Secretion of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors by human adipose stromal cells. Circulation 109(10):1292–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Han J, Koh YJ, Moon HR, Ryoo HG, Cho CH, Kim I et al (2010) Adipose tissue is an extramedullary reservoir for functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Blood 115(5):957–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Estes BT, Diekman BO, Gimble JM, Guilak F (2010) Isolation of adipose-derived stem cells and their induction to a chondrogenic phenotype. Nat Protoc 5(7):1294–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Conejero JA, Lee JA, Parrett BM et al (2006) Repair of palatal bone defect using osteogenically differentiated fat-derived stem cells. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dragoo JL, Choi JY, Lieberman JR et al (2003) Bone induction by BMP-2 transduced stem cells derived from human fat. J Orthop Res 21:622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prockop DJ (2007) ‘‘Stemness’’ does not explain the repair of many tissues by mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs). Clin Pharmacol Ther 82:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meijer Gert J et al (2008) Cell based bone tissue engineering in jaw defects. Biomaterials 29:3053–3061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cancedda R, Quarto R et al (2003) Bone marrow stromal cells and their use in regenerating bone. Novartis Found Symp 249:133–143Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ihan Hren N, Miljavec M (2008) Spontaneous bone healing of the large bone defects in the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 37:1111e–1116eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yim JH, Lee JH (2009) Spontaneous bone regeneration after enucleation of bone cyst: a radiographic analysis. Free papers, e poster presentationGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chiapasco M, Rossi A, Motta JJ, Crescentini M (2000) Spontaneous bone regeneration after enucleation of large mandibular cysts: a radiographic computed analysis of 27 consecutive cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 58:942-948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Graziano A, d’Aquino R, Laino G, Pirozzi G, De Rosa A, Papaccio G (2008) Human CD34+ stem cells produce bone nodules in vivo. Cell Prolif 41:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yang J, Yamato M, Kohno C et al (2005) Cell sheet engineering: recreating tissues without biodegradable scaffolds. Biomaterials 26(33):6415–6422CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.117, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryGovernment of Dental College and Hospital, Civil HospitalAhmedabad-16India

Personalised recommendations