Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 588–596 | Cite as

Soft-Tissue Anthropometric Norms of Iranians with Proper Occlusion and Inter-Ethnic Norm Comparisons

  • Behnam Khosravanifard
  • Elham Raeisi
  • Fatemeh Kadkhodaei Oliadarani
  • Vahid RakhshanEmail author
Original Article



Photographic soft-tissue norms of Iranian race are not reported previously, nor are they compared with other ethnicities. Besides, sex dimorphism is assessed in only very few studies on soft-tissue profile. The aim of this study was to assess the soft-tissue measurements of Iranians with good occlusion and the existing sex dimorphism and to compare the Iranian norms with other ethnicities.

Materials and Methods

Twelve anthropometric variables were measured by a dentist in 100 Iranian subjects with good occlusions. The subjects included 50 males and 50 females. The differences between the two genders, as well as the differences between Iranian norms and the norms in all other ethnicities available in the literature were statistically analyzed using a t test (α = 0.05).


There were significant differences between males and females regarding frontonasal angle (P = 0.0000), mentolabial sulcus (P = 0.0000), vertical height ratio (P = 0.0000), vertical lip–chin ratio (P = 0.0013), nasolabial angle (P = 0.0019), lower vertical height–depth ratio (P = 0.0029), maxillary prognathism (P = 0.0045), and mandibular prognathism (P = 0.0118). The difference in facial convexity was marginally significant (P = 0.0543). Protrusions of both lips and horizontal distance between the lips were not significantly different between sexes (P > 0.2).


Unlike Americans and Brazilians but similar to Koreans, there was considerable sex dimorphism in Iranians. Compared to Iranian men, women might have more convex profiles, more advanced mandibles (unlike all other races studied), more protruded maxillae, lips closer to the middle of nose-chin vertical distance, deeper mentolabial sulci, less protruded noses with higher nose tips, and smaller lower faces.


Anthropometry Ethnic groups Orthodontic photography Sex dimorphism 


Authors’ Contribution

BK mentored the thesis on photographic factors associated with beauty (published earlier). ER selected and photographed subjects and conceived the use of data pertaining to the first phase of thesis (not published as thesis or article) to compare male/female norms. VR conceived the use of first phase data for male/female and inter-ethnic comparisons, searched the literature, collected published norms of other countries, statistically compared the measurements between males and females and between Iranians with other countries, prepared the figures and tables, and drafted/revised the article. FKO participated in literature search and article revision.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behnam Khosravanifard
    • 1
  • Elham Raeisi
    • 2
  • Fatemeh Kadkhodaei Oliadarani
    • 3
  • Vahid Rakhshan
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthodontics, Dental BranchAzad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Dentist in Private PracticeTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental SchoolShahed UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Dental Anatomy and Morphology, Dental BranchAzad UniversityTehranIran
  5. 5.TehranIran

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