Control of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Patients with Isopropyl Alcohol: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of inhaled 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in oral and maxillofacial surgery patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia (GA).
Materials and Methods
This was a prospective, randomized, case-controlled study done on 208 maxillofacial surgery patients operated under GA. Patient’s demographic data, APFEL score for risk of PONV, duration of surgery and duration of anesthesia were recorded preoperatively. The test arm of the study received inhalation of 70% IPA every half an hour in the postoperative period for 8 h along with ondansetron 4 mg i.v. every 6 h. The control arm received only ondansetron 4 mg i.v. every 6 h. Both the groups followed the same preoperative and postoperative instruction and drug protocol except the test drug. PONV was recorded using the simplified PONV intensity score and VAS. The scores were analyzed with Mann–Whitney test with < 0.05 considered significant.
The groups were similar with regard to age (p = 0.083), BMI (p = 0.1.00), sex (p = 0.379), type of surgery (p = 0.504), duration of anesthesia (p = 0.621), duration of surgery (p = 0.515) and APFEL score (p = 0.687). IPA inhalation group achieved significantly better simplified PONV scores and VAS scores at 4 h (p = 0.000), 6 h (p = 0.000) and 8 h (p = 0.000). PONV control at 2 h was similar to the control group.
Inhalation of 70% IPA every half an hour was associated with significant PONV control in maxillofacial surgery patients undergoing surgery under GA.
KeywordsPONV Maxillofacial surgery Isopropyl alcohol Nausea and vomiting after surgery
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Institutional ethical clearance was obtained for the present study.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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