Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 425–431 | Cite as

Zygomatic Hypoplasia in Patients with Non-syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate: A Case–Control Study

  • Pendem SnehaEmail author
  • Poornima Ravi
  • Dhivya Arunachalam
  • V. B. Krishna Kumar Raja
Clinical Paper



Patients operated for cleft deformities may have zygomatic hypoplasia secondary to impaired growth of the maxilla. This has, however, not been evaluated in the past.

Subjects and Methods

This study was a prospective, case–control study. This included 32 patients, aged between 19 and 25 years, who were divided into cleft and non-cleft groups. The cleft group was further divided into unilateral clefts, bilateral clefts and isolated palatal clefts. In both groups, the zygoma was assessed and compared on both sides clinically using indirect photogrammetry and radiographically using 3D CT. The results were analyzed statistically using the unpaired t test.


There was a significant difference in the zygomatic projection on cleft and non-cleft sides in the unilateral cleft group. There was no significant difference in the zygomatic projection of both sides in the other subgroups and the control group.


The present study shows that there is a global effect of palato-alveolar cleft repair on the midfacial skeleton. Further studies are required to correlate the impact of age, gender and the technique of palato-alveolar cleft repair with the quantum of malar hypoplasia.


Zygomatic hypoplasia Cleft lip and palate Palatoplasty Midface hypoplasia 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pendem Sneha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Poornima Ravi
    • 1
  • Dhivya Arunachalam
    • 1
  • V. B. Krishna Kumar Raja
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgerySRM Dental CollegeRamapuram, ChennaiIndia

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