Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 158–163 | Cite as

Pediatric Facial Fractures: A 10-year Study

Research Paper
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

Aims and Objectives

The aim of the study is to retrospectively analyse the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries and any complications of paediatric patients operated in Craniofacial unit of SDM college of dental sciences and hospital.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective study was conducted at the department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003–December 2013. All the patients below 15 years of age were included in the study. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries and different treatment protocols.

Results

A total of 68 cases of paediatric fracture were treated during these 10 years. Boys were commonly injured than girls with a ratio of 2.9:1, the commonest cause of trauma was fall (59 %), mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured (83 %), treatment protocols were dependant on the age, region and type of fracture but in most of the cases closed reduction was the choice of treatment, dental injuries were seen in 26 % patients and the commonest injury was avulsion.

Conclusion

This study was done not only to analyse the different types of facial fractures and the pattern of fracture of paediatric cases admitted at this centre, but also to act as a contributional data which will help us to take preventive measures to avoid such injuries and make the appropriate treatment plan and execute it to achieve the pre-injury status of form and function.

Keywords

Pediatric Maxillofacial Trauma Dental injuries 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Author Dr. Rajarshi Ghosh, Author Dr. K. Gopalkrishnan, and Author Dr. Jawahar Anand declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12663_2016_965_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (716 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 715 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Kyrgidis A et al (2013) Incidence, aetiology, treatment outcome and complications of maxillofacial fractures. A retrospective study from Northern Greece. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 41:637–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Posnick JC, Wells M, Pron GE (1993) Pediatric facial fractures: evolving patterns of treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 51:836–844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gassner R, Tuli T, Hachl O (2003) Craniomaxillofacial trauma: a 10 year review of 9543 cases with 21,067 injuries. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 31:51–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaban LB (1993) Diagnosis and treatment of fractures of facial bones in children 1943–1993. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 51:722–729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tanaka N et al (1993) Maxillofacial fractures in children. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 21:289–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ida S, Matsuya T (2002) Paediatric maxillofacial fractures: their aetiological characters and fracture patterns. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 30:237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oji C (1998) Fractures of the facial skeleton in children: a survey of patients under the age of 11 years. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 26:322–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    MacCoy FJ, Chandler RA, Crow ML (1966) Facial fractures in children. Plast Reconst Surg 37:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rowe NL (1969) Fractures of the jaws in children. J Oral Surg. 27:497–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kiyota K (1976) Clinical and roentgenographic studies on fractures of the jaw in children. J Jpn Stomatol 43:479–508 (In Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nishijima K et al (1978) Clinicostatistical observation and prognosis of pediatric mandibular fracture cases in our department during the past 15 years. Jpn J Pediatr Dent 16:461–467 (In Japanese) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zachariades N, Papavassiliou D, Koumoura F (1990) Fractures of the facial skeleton in children. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 18:151–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thore´n H et al (1992) Different patterns of mandibular fractures in children. An analysis of 220 fractures in 157 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 20:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stylogianni L, Arsenopoulos A, Patrikiou A (1991) Fractures of the facial skeleton in children. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 29:9–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guven O (1992) Fractures of the maxillofacial region in children. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 20:244–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderson PJ (1995) Fractures of the facial skeleton in children. Injury 26:47–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holland AJ et al (2001) Facial fractures in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 17:157–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Adekeye EO (1980) Paediatric fractures of the facial skeleton: a survey of 85 cases from Kaduna, Nigeria. J Oral Surg 38:355–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kotilainen R, Karja J, Kullaa-Mikkonen A (1990) Jaw fractures in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 19:57–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Infante Cossio P et al (1994) Mandibular fractures in children. A retrospective study of 99 fractures in 59 patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 23:329–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Acton CH, Nixon JW, Clark RC (1996) Bicycle riding and oral/maxillofacial trauma in young children. Med J Aust 165:249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bamjee Y et al (1996) Maxillofacial injuries in a group of South Africans under 18 years ofage. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 34:298–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zerfowski M, Bremerich A (1998) Facial trauma in children and adolescents. Clin Oral Invest 2:120–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Iizuka T et al (1995) Midfacial fractures in pediatric patients. Frequency, characteristics and causes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:1366–1371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oikarinen VJ, Malmstrom M (1969) Jaw fractures. Suom Hammaslaak Toim 65:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    AI-Aboosi K, Perriman A (1976) One hundred cases of mandibular fractures in children in Iraq. Int J Oral Surg 5:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reil B, Kranz S (1976) Traumatology of the maxillofacial region in childhood (Statistical evaluation of 210 cases in the last 13 years). J Maxillofac Surg 4:197–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McGuiri WF, Salisbury PL (1987) Mandibular fractures. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 113:257–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Amaratunga NAS (1988) Mandibular fractures in children. A study of clinical aspects, treatment needs, and complications. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 46:637–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaban LB, Mulliken JB, Murray JE (1977) Facial fractures in children. Plast Reconstr Surg 59:15–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gussack GS et al (1987) Pediatric maxillofacial trauma: unique features in diagnosis and treatment. Laryngoscope 97:925–930CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maniglia AJ, Kline SH (1983) Maxillofacial trauma in the paediatric age group. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 16:717–730PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajarshi Ghosh
    • 1
  • K. Gopalkrishnan
    • 1
  • Jawahar Anand
    • 1
  1. 1.Oral and Maxillofacial SurgerySDM College of Dental Sciences and HospitalSattur, DharwadIndia

Personalised recommendations