Evaluation of mass-reach physical activity campaigns: considering automatic processes

  • Tanya R. BerryEmail author
  • Lira Yun


Mass-reach physical activity campaigns are usually evaluated based on the assumption that behavior change is an outcome of higher-level cognitive operations such as intentions. However, elements in a mass-reach physical activity promotion campaign may automatically attract attention or activate associated concepts; these, in turn, can influence targeted attitudes, intentions, or behavior. Repeated exposure to campaigns may also create physical activity associations. However, there is limited guidance for the inclusion of measurement of automatic processes when evaluating campaigns. The purpose of this article is to argue that automatic processes should be considered when evaluating mass-reach physical activity promotion campaigns, and to propose hypotheses regarding how automatic processes may relate to campaign effects. The proposed hypotheses build on the physical activity-specific hierarchy-of-effects model, which has been used to evaluate mass-reach campaigns. Points along the hierarchy of effects are suggested where automatic processes may be incorporated into the evaluation of mass-reach physical activity promotion campaigns. Thus, broad hypotheses are offered regarding how automatic processes can be moderators of campaign effects or can emerge as a result of the campaign. By testing the proposed hypotheses, it is hoped that mass-reach physical activity promotion campaigns can be better understood with the goal of having more effective campaigns.


Dual-processing Evaluation Physical activity Hierarchy-of-effects model Attentional bias Automatic associations 

Beurteilung von Werbeaktionen für körperliche Aktivität mit Breitenwirkung: Berücksichtigung automatischer Prozesse


Auf Breitenwirkung abzielende Kampagnen für körperliche Aktivität werden gewöhnlich auf der Grundlage der Annahme beurteilt, dass Verhaltensänderungen das Ergebnis kognitiver Vorgänge auf höherer Ebene, z. B. Intentionen, sind. Allerdings können Elemente in einer auf Breitenwirkung abzielenden Werbeaktion für körperliche Aktivität automatisch die Aufmerksamkeit auf sich ziehen oder assoziierte Konzepte aktivieren; diese können umgekehrt gezielte Haltungen, Intentionen oder Verhalten beeinflussen. Die wiederholte Exposition gegenüber Werbeaktionen kann ebenfalls Assoziationen zu körperlicher Aktivität erzeugen. Es bestehen jedoch nur begrenzte Orientierungshilfen für den Einschluss der Messung automatischer Prozesse in die Beurteilung von Werbeaktionen. Der Zweck des vorliegenden Beitrags besteht darin darzulegen, dass automatische Prozesse berücksichtigt werden sollten, wenn es um die Beurteilung von auf Breitenwirkung abzielende Werbeaktionen für körperliche Aktivität geht, und Hypothesen in Bezug darauf vorzustellen, wie automatische Prozesse mit der Wirkung von Werbeaktionen in Zusammenhang stehen. Die vorgestellten Hypothesen beruhen auf dem – hier speziell auf körperliche Aktivität bezogenen – Hierarchy-of-Effects-Modell, einem Modell zur hierarchischen Abfolge von Werbewirkungen, welches zur Beurteilung auf Breitenwirkung abzielender Werbeaktionen eingesetzt wird. Es werden Punkte in der Hierarchie der Wirkungen vorgeschlagen, an denen automatische Prozesse in die Beurteilung auf Breitenwirkung abzielender Promotion-Aktionen integriert werden können. Somit werden weitreichende Hypothesen hinsichtlich dessen dargestellt, wie automatische Prozesse Moderatoren der Wirkungen von Kampagnen sein können oder als ein Ergebnis der Kampagne entstehen können. Durch Testung der vorgestellten Hypothesen ist zu hoffen, dass ein besseres Verständnis auf Breitenwirkung abzielender Werbeaktionen erreicht wird mit dem Ziel, wirksamere Werbekampagnen durchzuführen.


Separate Verarbeitung Auswertung Sportliche Betätigung Hierarchie-von-Effekten-Modell Aufmerksamkeitsverzerrung Automatische Assoziationen 



This work was undertaken, in part, thanks to funding from the Canada Research Chairs program provided to Tanya Berry.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

T.R. Berry and L. Yun declare that they have no competing interests.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and RecreationUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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