# Visualization of a finite wall-mounted cylinder wake controlled by a horizontal or inclined hole

### Abstract

A passive flow control technique, which is to drill a horizontal hole going from the front surface to the rear surface or an inclined hole going from the front surface to the top surface inside a circular cylinder of an aspect ratio *H*/*D* = 1, is proposed to control the rear recirculation region and the vortices near the free end surface. Here, both the diameter *D* and height *H* of cylinder are 70 mm. PIV measurement was performed with Reynolds number of 8570 in a water tunnel. Furthermore, in order to consider the effect of the hole position of the front surface, the cylinder models having different hole height of front surface from wall were tested. It is found that the rear recirculation zones of the horizontal hole cylinders are smaller than that of the standard cylinder. The Reynolds shear stresses and the turbulent kinetic energy are evidently reduced by the flow issued from the horizontal hole. Meanwhile, the instantaneous large-scale vortical structures of the rear recirculation zone are broken down into several small-scale vortices with decreasing the height of the horizontal hole. Although the rear separation zone of the inclined hole cylinder increases, the recirculation region near the free end surface decreases. The areas of large Reynolds shear stress and high turbulent kinetic energy increase in the rear recirculation zone. However, with increasing the height of the inclined hole, the Reynolds shear stress decreases.

### Graphical Abstract

## Keywords

Flow controlling hole Flow separation region Passive flow control PIV Low aspect ratio cylinder Vortex Wake## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The second author (AR) wishes to acknowledge support given to him by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 16K06067) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science and Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11721202 and 11772035).

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