Journal of Visualization

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 63–71 | Cite as

Lagrangian flow visualization of multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings

  • Suyang Qin
  • Hong LiuEmail author
  • Yang Xiang
Regular Paper


This paper, for the first time, experimentally observes the detailed interacting phenomena of multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings using the method of finite-time Lyapunov exponent field. Besides the most attractive leapfrogging in dual vortex ring flows, several distinct phenomena are also found. The merger of squeezing is first observed in multiple vortex rings, resulting from the strong axial compressive induced effect. The inner vortex ring becomes axis-touching and cannot recover to the previous status. The merger due to elongation is already found in the previous studies. The inner vortex ring is elongated and distorted. The detachment of several independent vortex rings indicates that vortex merger has its limit, which is also a newfound phenomenon.

Graphical abstract


FTLE Vortex ring Leapfrogging Merger 



Financial support from the State Key Development Program of Basic Research of China (2014CB744802) is gratefully acknowledged. Besides, this work was also supported by NSFC Project (91441205). The authors would also like to acknowledge the Center for High Performance Computing of Shanghai Jiao Tong University for providing the super computer-\(\pi\) to support this research.

Supplementary material

12650_2017_450_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (12.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 13137 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 11647 kb)

12650_2017_450_MOESM3_ESM.mp4 (15.6 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (MP4 15924 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.J. C. Wu Center for Aerodynamics, School of Aeronautics and AstronauticsShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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