The Dynamics Analysis of Fungal Community Diversity During the Fermentation Process of Chinese Traditional Soybean Paste
The aim of this work was to monitor the microflora and the changing principle of the fungi family at the natural fermented soybean paste different fermentation stage.
It obtained the V4 and V5 regions of the 18S rDNA by extracting the fungal genomic DNA from the natural fermented soybean paste. DGGE fingerprint of fungal 18S rDNA V4 (partial), V5 sections during the different soybean paste fermentation periods of 17 samples were line analyzed. The abundance, the absorbance and the degree of dominance and diversity indexes of fungal community were determined by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).
The V4, V5 regions of 18S rDNA of the complex microbial community in the fermentation of traditional soybean paste were around 762 bp and 422 bp, and there were 9 kinds of microorganisms discovered, which were Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor, P. commune, Absidia corymbifera, M. racemosus, Actinomucor elegans, Aspergillus, and an unculturable fungi. The DGGE ecological analysis showed that the unculturable fungi and A. oryzae were dominant microorganisms all the time, and the highest diversion index of 2.87 was reached at 56 days of fermentation.
This study laid a foundation for researching suitable soybean paste artificial inoculation and also provided a good help for the fermentation process of soybean paste.
KeywordsDenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 18S rDNA Community diversity Soybean paste fermentation
This work was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31570492, 31770544) and Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Engineering and Biological Fermentation Engineering for Cold Region.
- 2.Jeong, Y.H., Jin, K.H., Jung, K.M., Suna, K., Sol, K.D., Daily, J.W., Youn, J.D., Young, K.D., Sunmin, P.: Standardized chungkookjang, short-term fermented soybeans with Bacillus lichemiformis, improves glucose homeostasis as much as traditionally made chungkookjang in diabetic rats. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 52(1), 49–57 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Gao, X.Z., Xin-Xin, Y.I., Liu, H., Wang, X.D., Cui, Z.J.: Microbial diversity of traditional soybean paste during fermentation in northeastern China. Biotechnol. Bull. 32(4), 251–255 (2016)Google Scholar
- 10.Zhao, H., Weizhen, X.U., Yang, G., Liu, Y., Yue, P., Zhang, L.: Bacterial community analysis of Pixian soybean paste during post-fermentation by high-throughput sequencing. Food Sci. 38(10), 117–122 (2017)Google Scholar
- 11.Muyzer, G., De Waal, E.C., Uitterlinden, A.G.: Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microb. 59(3), 695–700 (1993)Google Scholar
- 14.Zhang, W.J., Mo, Y.Y., Yang, J., Zhou, J., Lin, Y.S., Alain, I., Zhang, J., Gao, X., Yu, Z.: Genetic diversity pattern of microeukaryotic communities and its relationship with the environment based on pcr-dgge and t-rflp techniques in dongshan bay, southeast China. Cont. Shelf Res. 164, 1–9 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Han, R., Yuan, Y.Z., Cao, Q.W., Li, Q.H., Chen, L.S., Zhu, D.R., Liu, D.L.: Pcr-dgge analysis on microbial community structure of rural household biogas digesters in qinghai plateau. Curr. Microbiol. 75(5), 1–9 (2017)Google Scholar
- 16.Orlewska K., Piotrowska-Seget Z., Bratosiewicz-Wąsik J., Cycoń M.: Characterization of bacterial diversity in soil contaminated with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin and/or inoculated with a multidrug-resistant Raoultella sp. strain using the pcr-dgge approach. Appl Soil Ecol. 126, 57–64 (2018)Google Scholar
- 19.Milanović, V., Osimani, A., Garofalo, C., De, F.F., Ercolini, D., Cardinali, F., Taccari, M., Aquilanti, L., Clementi, F.: Profiling white wine seed vinegar bacterial diversity through viable counting, metagenomic sequencing and PCR-DGGE. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 286, 66–74 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Chahorm K., Prakitchaiwattana C.: Application of reverse transcriptase PCR-DGGE as a rapid method for routine determination of Vibrio spp. in foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 264, 46–52 (2018)Google Scholar
- 22.Ramezani, M., Hosseini, S.M., Fazeli, S.A.S., Amoozegar, M.A., Fakhari, J.: PCR-DGGE analysis of fungal community in manufacturing process of a traditional Iranian cheese. Iran J. Biotechnol. 10(3), 180–186 (2018)Google Scholar
- 29.Wang, X.D., Liu, M., Gao, P., Ding, W., Gao, Q., Sun, Q.: Succession of fungal community and growth and decline of aflatoxin B1 during natural fermentation of watercress. Food Sci. 33(11), 142–146 (2012)Google Scholar
- 31.Shuji, Y., Daisuke, Y., Koji, N., Koji, Y., Hideyuki, K., Tomoki, O., Yuji, K.: Microbiota during fermentation of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce mash inoculated with halotolerant microbial starters: analyses using the plate count method and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Food Microbiol. 27(4), 509–514 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Lee, S., Lee, S., Singh, D., Ji, Y.O., Jeon, E.J., Ryu, H.S., Dong, W.L., Kim, B.S., Lee, C.H.: Comparative evaluation of microbial diversity and metabolite profiles in doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, during the two different industrial manufacturing processes. Food Chem. 221, 1578–1586 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar