Health-Promoting Properties of Brazilian Unconventional Food Plants
- 9 Downloads
This study lies on the unexplored and unprecedented opportunities for the discovery of Unconventional Food Plants (UFPs) rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. UFPs grow spontaneously and have been consider an important food sources and demonstrate health-promoting properties. This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profiles together with the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant in vitro activities of the Brazilian UFPs Hypochaeris chillensis, Emilia fosbergii and Emilia sonchifolia.
Preliminary secondary metabolites were identified by LC–MS/MS analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by the ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays. The effects of UFPs on nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion generation (O2•−), and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) production and on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity was determined using Griess reagent, immunoenzymatic assay kits (ELISA) and chemiluminescence measurements in cell-based assays, respectively.
Phytochemical analysis revealed significant amount of total phenolic content in all of the studied plants. E. fosbergii showed the highest antioxidant capacity in all of the chemical assays, exhibiting IC50 values of 32.9 ± 4.8, 50.2 ± 2.3 and 24.0 ± 2.9 µg mL−1 in the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The studied UFPs showed a significant intracellular reduction in NO and O2•− production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Additionally, UFPs suppressed the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, E. sonchifolia suppressed NF-κB activity.
Altogether, the investigated UFPs exhibited promising bioactive compounds that were capable of neutralizing free radicals, controlling oxidative stress and modulating the inflammatory process.
KeywordsHypochaeris chillensis Emilia fosbergii Emilia sonchifolia Oxidative stress Inflammation
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Ferric reducing antioxidant power
Nitric oxide synthase
Nuclear transcription factor kappa B
Unconventional food plants
Reactive oxygen species
Tumour necrosis factor alpha
This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) (Finance Code 001). The authors also wish to thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Espirito Santo (FAPES) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Azam, F.M.S., Biswas, A., Mannan, A., Afsana, N.A., Jahan, R., Rahmatullah, M.: Are famine food plants also ethnomedicinal plants? An ethnomedicinal appraisal of famine food plants of two districts of Bangladesh. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2014, 1–28 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/741712 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Burneiko, R.C.M., Diniz, Y.S., Galhardi, C.M., Rodrigues, H.G., Ebaid, G.M.X., Faine, L.A., Padovani, C.R., Cicogna, A.C., Novelli, E.L.B.: Interaction of hypercaloric diet and physical exercise on lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses. Food Chem Toxicol 44, 1167–1172 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Moharram, H.A., Youssef, M.M.: Methods for determining the antioxidant activity: a review. Alex. J. Food Sci. Technol. 11, 31–42 (2014)Google Scholar
- 12.Moraes, F.P., Colla, L.M.: Functional foods and nutraceuticals: definition, legislation and health benefits. Rev. Eletrôn. Farm. 3, 99–112 (2006)Google Scholar
- 15.Zhu, Z., Li, J., Gao, X., Amponsem, E., Kang, L., Hu, L., Zhang, B., Chang, Y.: Simultaneous determination of stilbenes, phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthraquinones in Radix polygoni multiflori by LC–MS/MS. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 62, 162–166 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2011.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Benzie, I.F., Strain, J.J.: Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol. 299, 15–27 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Marques, F.M., Figueira, M.M., Schmitt, E.F.P., Kondratyuk, T.P., Endringer, D.C., Scherer, R., Fronza, M.: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of terpenes via suppression of superoxide and nitric oxide generation and the NF-κB signalling pathway. Inflammopharmacology 27, 281–289 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-018-0483-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Do, Q.D., Angkawijaya, A.E., Tran-Nguyen, P.L., Huynh, L.H., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ismadji, S., Ju, Y.H.: Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. J. Food Drug Anal. 22, 296–302 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Chen, H.J., Inbaraj, B.S., Chen, B.H.: Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, 260–285 (2012). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13010260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Hossain, M.B., Camphuis, G., Aguiló-Aguayo, I., Gangopadhyay, N., Rai, D.K.: Antioxidant activity guided separation of major polyphenols of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) using flash chromatography and their identification by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 37, 3205–3213 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201400597 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Zheng, G.D., Zhou, P., Yang, H., Li, Y.S., Li, P., Liu, E.H.: Rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method for identification of chemical constituents in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. Food Chem. 136, 604–611 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Senguttuvan J, Paulsamy S, Karthika K (2014) Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of leaf and root parts of the medicinal herb, Hypochaeris radicata L. for in vitro antioxidant activities. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4:S359–S367. https://doi.org/10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1030
- 38.Molavi, B., Mehta, J.L.: Oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease: molecular basis of its deleterious effects, its detection, and therapeutic considerations. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 19, 488–493 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hco.0000133657.77024.bd CrossRefGoogle Scholar