Construction of Rechargeable Protein Battery from Mixed-Waste Processing of Fish Scales and Chicken Feathers

  • Z. Hussain
  • A. Sardar
  • K. M. Khan
  • M. Y. NazEmail author
  • S. A. Sulaiman
  • S. Shukrullah
Original Paper


This study deals with valorization of the protein-rich fish and poultry waste. Since fish scales and chicken feathers are hard-to-degrade by the scavenger microbes, they were hydrolyzed into a source material for construction of rechargeable protein batteries. Both wastes were dissolved in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to form oxidizing and reducing halves of the battery. NaOH not only worked as a hydrolyzing agent but electrolyte for battery as well. Different parameters including NaOH concentration, salt bridge, charge storage capacity, charging time and quantity of the waste were optimized to get maximum output from the protein battery. The optimum concentration of NaOH was measured about 0.75 M. The waved-thread wick was found the best salt bridge and maximum charger power was obtained at 24 V with 10 min of charging time. The scale to feather ratio of 4:5 was found best condition for construction of protein battery with stable output. The constructed battery was found effective in both open and closed circuits. Light emitting diodes were used as a load for the closed circuit.


Rechargeable protein battery Fish scale waste Chicken feather waste Electroactive collagen Sodium hydroxide 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Hussain
    • 1
  • A. Sardar
    • 1
  • K. M. Khan
    • 2
  • M. Y. Naz
    • 3
    Email author
  • S. A. Sulaiman
    • 4
  • S. Shukrullah
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan
  2. 2.H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological SciencesUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi PetronasSeri IskandarMalaysia

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