Valorization of Post-consumer PP by (Un)modified Tunisian Clay Nanoparticles Incorporation
- 27 Downloads
Modified (or unmodified) Tunisian clay nanoparticles were incorporated as nanofillers in post-consumer polypropylene (PCPP) polymer matrix in order to improve its inherent properties. PCPP loaded with Na-clay or organoclay nanocomposites were elaborated by melt intercalation method. Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of prepared nanocomposites were then evaluated. SEM observations showed better nanoparticles dispersion when PCPP was filled with organoclay compared to Na-clay. According to FTIR analysis, the increase of PCPP band intensity is much higher when using organoclay, suggesting that the nanocomposites might have more intercalation of organoclay aggregates than in the case of filled with Na-clay. Thermal gravimetric and thermal degradation analyses results confirmed that the addition of modified clay allows better thermal stability than PCPP filled with unmodified clay. This result was confirmed by DSC analysis. We deduced from the rheological analysis that PCPP storage modulus G′ and loss modulus G″ increased with the addition of clay nanoparticles. This increase was higher when the organo-modified clay was dispersed into the PCPP matrix, demonstrating the reinforcing effect of the latter on PCPP polymer.
Storage modulus of pure PCPP and PCPP/clay nanocomposites.
KeywordsPost-consumer PP Clay Nanofiller Rheological Nanocomposites
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Hassen, A.A., Dizbay-Onat, M., Bansal, D., Bayush, T., Vaidya, U.: Utilization of chicken eggshell waste as a bio-filler for thermoplastic polymers: thermal and mechanical characterization of polypropylene filled with naturally derived CaCO3. Polym. Polym. Compos. 23, 653 (2015)Google Scholar
- 5.Le Pluart, L.: Nanocomposites epoxyde/amine/montmorillonite. PhD Thesis, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon, France, 2002Google Scholar
- 9.Teh, P.L., Ishak, Z., Karger-Kocsis, J.: Cure characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/organoclay nanocomposites. J. Teknol. 39, 539–550 (2012)Google Scholar
- 13.Salem, N., Ltifi, M., Hassis, H.: Characterisation of lightweight concrete of Tunisian expanded clay: mechanical and durability study. Eur. J. Environ. Civ. Eng. 21, 670–695 (2016)Google Scholar
- 14.Ben Messaoud, I., Hamdi, N., Srasra, E.: Physico-chemical properties of geopolymer binders made from Tunisian clay. Mater. Focus 7, 114–120 (2018)Google Scholar
- 20.Ben Othman, A., Ayari, F., Mezguich, S., Trabelsi, M.: Physico-chemical properties of synthesized organobentonite. Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. 5, 715–720 (2016)Google Scholar
- 21.Komadel, P., Madejová, J.: Chap. 10.1—Acid activation of clay minerals. In: Bergaya, F., Lagaly, G. (eds.) Developments in clay science, vol. 5, pp. 385–409. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2013)Google Scholar
- 30.Ellouze, R., Gharsalli, J., Turki, F., Mhiri, T., Zouari, H.: The pillaring of natural Tunisian clays from Jebel Nahli for eventual industrial applications. Verres Céram. Compos. 3, 17–23 (2014)Google Scholar
- 31.Karasa, J., Ivanova, K.: Obtaining and organophilisation of smectite clays with reduced iron oxide content. Mater. Sci. Appl. Chem. 33, 22–25 (2016)Google Scholar
- 33.Jaber, M., Brendlé, J.: Organoclays: preparation, properties and applications. In: Ordered porous solids, pp. 31–49. Elsevier, New York (2006)Google Scholar
- 38.Bahrami, S.H., Mirzaie, Z.: Polypropylene/modified nanoclay composite-processing and dyeability properties. World Appl. Sci. J. 13(3), 493–501 (2011)Google Scholar
- 39.Heper, M., Türker, L., Kincal, N.S.J.: Sodium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium forms of zeolite Y for the adsorption of glucose and fructose from aqueous solutions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 11, 306 (2007)Google Scholar
- 51.Banerjee, S., Joshi, M., Ghosh, A.K.: Investigations on clay dispersion in polypropylene/clay nanocomposites using rheological and microscopic analysis. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130, 4464–4473 (2013)Google Scholar