Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 2887–2895 | Cite as

Microbial Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) Using Pig Urine as an Alternative to Industrial Urea

  • How-Ji Chen
  • Yi-Hsun Huang
  • Chien-Cheng Chen
  • Jyoti Prakash MaityEmail author
  • Chien-Yen ChenEmail author
Original Paper


Biocalcification by microbial induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) (catalyzes by microbial enzyme urease) is a promising field of research in recent decades due to its versatile application in industry. Besides, the animal waste disposal has attracted much attention owing to increasing awareness of environmental protection and resource substitution. Though, the biotechnical application of Pig urine which causes of environmental pollution due to existence of high amount of urea or pig urea (PU), not study yet. Present study, PU was used instead of industrial urea, first time, as the enzymatic substance to produced CaCO3 by four sets of experimental quartz-sand column (Control, A (4 h), B (6 h) and C (12 h)) with different injection time intervals (4 h, 6 h and 12 h), bacterial (Sporosarcina pasteurii, DSM 33) amount, pig urine and with 1.1 (M) CaCl2. The results revealed the precipitation of CaCO3 from PU and CaCl2 in presence of S. pasteurii. The porosity and permeability of the quartz-sand column was noted to decrease with the application of pig urine. The mechanical properties (anti-permeability) of the quartz-sand columns were noticed better, while time interval between (4 h) the application of pig urine and bacterial solution was shorter (CaCO3 formation increase by 43%, compare to control). The XRD and SEM results displayed the CaCO3 formation, which confirmed the feasibility of PU as carbonate source. The findings implied a cost reduction of MICP technology by using pig urine as urea, animal waste mitigation for environmental pollution and resource substitution.


MICP Pig urine Quartz-sand columns CaCO3 Resources management 



Authors would like to thank Ministry of Science and Technology (Taiwan) for financial support (MOST 105-2811-M-194-014 and MOST 106-2811-M-194-006).


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Chung-Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyNational Kaohsiung Normal UniversityKaohsiung CityTaiwan, Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesNational Chung Cheng UniversityChiayi CountyTaiwan, Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Civil Engineering and Surveying and International Centre for Applied Climate ScienceUniversity of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia

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