Optimization of Lycopene Extraction from Tomato Processing Waste Using an Eco-Friendly Ethyl Lactate–Ethyl Acetate Solvent: A Green Valorization Approach
- 221 Downloads
Lycopene is a highly-prized antioxidant with associated health benefits and is abundant in natural sources. A green valorization approach was used to extract lycopene from tomato processing waste. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was applied to the tomato waste using an eco-friendly solvent mixture containing ethyl lactate and ethyl acetate for the extraction of lycopene. Extraction parameters were: X1 = extraction temperature (°C), X2 = proportion of ethyl acetate in solvent mixture (% v/v), X3 = solvent:sample ratio (mL/g), and X4 = extraction time (min). A Box–Behnken design was used to define experimental conditions, and response surface methodology was then conducted to determine the optimized conditions: X1 = 63.4 °C, X2 = 30% (v/v), X3 = 100 mL/g, and X4 = 20 min. The experimental optimized extraction yield of lycopene was 1334.8 µg/g (d.w.), in agreement with the predicted yield. At the same conditions without ultrasound, a yield of 1209.5 µg/g (d.w.) was obtained (9.4% lower). Ultrasound increases extraction yield, and tomato processing by-products are a viable alternative source of extractable lycopene. This represents a greener strategy for the extraction of lycopene in comparison to conventional methods using organic solvents, and shows a promising alternative use for a food processing waste.
KeywordsBy-product Green extraction Carotenoids Box–Behnken design Response surface methodology Biomass utilization Extraction/separation
The authors would like to thank the processing company who provided the tomato pomace for this study and are grateful to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) (CAPES—Brazil), the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD—Canada), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC—Canada) for financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., Kimura, M.: Harvestplus Handbook for Carotenoid Analysis. HarvestPlus Technical Monograph 2. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Washington, DC (2004)Google Scholar
- 10.Rath, S., Olempska-Beer, Z., Kuznesof, P.M.: Lycopene extract from tomato. Chemical and Technical Assessment (CTA). http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agns/pdf/jecfa/cta/71/lycopene_extract_from_tomato.pdf (2009). Accessed 28 Aug 2017
- 11.Sharma, S.K., Le Maguer, M.: Lycopene in tomatoes and tomato pulp fractions. Ital. J. Food Sci. 8(2), 107–113 (1996)Google Scholar
- 13.FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration): Food Additive Status List. U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Silver Spring, MD. https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm091048.htm#ftnH (2018). Accessed 07 Apr 2018
- 14.ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry): Toxicological profile for n-Hexane. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp113.pdf (1999). Accessed 21 June 2017
- 16.Hartwig, A.: Ethyl acetate. In: The MAK-Collection for Occupational Health and Safety. Part I: MAK Value Documentations. pp. 167–176. Wiley, Hoboken (2012)Google Scholar
- 17.WHO (World Health Organization): Evaluations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). http://apps.who.int/food-additives-contaminants-jecfa-database/chemical.aspx?chemID=2357 (1996). Accessed 07 Apr 2018
- 32.Deng, G., Xu, D., Li, S., Li, H.: Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) peel using response surface methodology. Molecules 20, 448–459 (2015)Google Scholar
- 35.Ahmadi, M., Heidari, O., Nafchi, A.R.M.: Optimization of lycopene extraction from tomato waste with the integration of ultrasonic—enzymatic processes by response surface methodology. J. Ind. Eng. Res. 1(2), 29–34 (2015)Google Scholar
- 38.AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists): Method 934.06: Moisture in Dried Fruits. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International, 18 edn. AOAC International, Gaithersburg (2005)Google Scholar
- 41.NIST/SEMATECH: NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods. 5. Process Improvement. http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pri/pri.htm (2012). Accessed 05 Apr 2017
- 42.Silva, Y.P.A., Pereira, V.A., Brooks, M.S., Ferreira, T.A.P.C.: Effect of solvent on lycopene extraction yield from tomato pomace. Paper presented at the CSBE/SCGAB Annual General Meeting and Technical Conference joint with CIGR VI Technical Symposium, Winnipeg, Canada. http://www.csbe-scgab.ca/publications/meeting-papers/csbe-technical-conferences/8072 (2017). Accessed 25 Aug 2017
- 45.Gama, J.T., Tadiotti, A.C., Sylos, C.M.: Comparison of carotenoid content in tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by liquid chromatography. Aliment. Nutr. 17(4), 353–358 (2006)Google Scholar
- 48.Brittton, G.: UV/visible spectroscopy. In: Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S., Pfander, H. (eds.) Carotenoids. Volume 1B: Spectroscopy, pp. 13–62. Birhäuser Verlag, Basel (1995)Google Scholar
- 50.Berger, P.D., Maurer, R.E., Celli, G.B.: Experimental Design with Applications in Management, Engineering, and the Sciences, 2 edn. Springer, Cham (2018)Google Scholar
- 53.Palma, M., Barbero, G.F., Piñero, Z., Liazid, A., Barroso, C.G., Rostagno, M.A., Prado, J.M., Meireles, M.A.A.: Extraction of natural products: principles and fundamental aspects. In: Rostagno, M. A., Prado, J. M. (eds.) Natural Product Extraction: Principles and Applications, pp. 58–88. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar