Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 2851–2861 | Cite as

Optimization of Lycopene Extraction from Tomato Processing Waste Using an Eco-Friendly Ethyl Lactate–Ethyl Acetate Solvent: A Green Valorization Approach

  • Yasmini P. A. Silva
  • Tânia A. P. C. Ferreira
  • Giovana B. Celli
  • Marianne S. BrooksEmail author
Original Paper


Lycopene is a highly-prized antioxidant with associated health benefits and is abundant in natural sources. A green valorization approach was used to extract lycopene from tomato processing waste. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was applied to the tomato waste using an eco-friendly solvent mixture containing ethyl lactate and ethyl acetate for the extraction of lycopene. Extraction parameters were: X1 = extraction temperature (°C), X2 = proportion of ethyl acetate in solvent mixture (% v/v), X3 = solvent:sample ratio (mL/g), and X4 = extraction time (min). A Box–Behnken design was used to define experimental conditions, and response surface methodology was then conducted to determine the optimized conditions: X1 = 63.4 °C, X2 = 30% (v/v), X3 = 100 mL/g, and X4 = 20 min. The experimental optimized extraction yield of lycopene was 1334.8 µg/g (d.w.), in agreement with the predicted yield. At the same conditions without ultrasound, a yield of 1209.5 µg/g (d.w.) was obtained (9.4% lower). Ultrasound increases extraction yield, and tomato processing by-products are a viable alternative source of extractable lycopene. This represents a greener strategy for the extraction of lycopene in comparison to conventional methods using organic solvents, and shows a promising alternative use for a food processing waste.


By-product Green extraction Carotenoids Box–Behnken design Response surface methodology Biomass utilization Extraction/separation 



The authors would like to thank the processing company who provided the tomato pomace for this study and are grateful to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) (CAPES—Brazil), the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD—Canada), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC—Canada) for financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12649_2018_317_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (148 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 147 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of NutritionFederal University of GoiásGoiâniaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Process Engineering and Applied ScienceDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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