Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 2995–3008 | Cite as

MgO Supported Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Shell for Methanolysis of Waste Cooking Oil

  • Himadri Sahu
  • Sarthak Dube
  • Kaustubha MohantyEmail author
Original Paper


The present work is primarily focused on use of an agriculture waste i.e. groundnut shell for preparation of Mg metal ion supported heterogeneous catalyst. Wet impregnation method was followed to prepare the catalyst and finally physiological characterization was done by XRD, FESEM, SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, TGA and BET surface area analysis. Nano range metal oxide ions were observed during HR-TEM analysis and formation of Epsomite was confirmed by XRD analysis. Mg grafting followed by calcination made the catalyst heat stable above 500 °C. Effect of Mg metal loading during methanolysis of waste cooking oil was extensively studied by developing a second order kinetic model. The catalytic activity was studied by using various weight proportions of waste shell and metal oxide. The most important factor i.e. reusability of catalyst was studied thoroughly and after seven cycle the decrease in methyl ester yield was found to be only 2.9%.


Agricultural waste Heterogeneous catalyst Methanolysis Waste cooking oil 



Authors acknowledge the facilities accessible to characterize the catalyst which is financed by CIF, IIT Guwahati. Authors also acknowledge the XRD facility available in Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati. The XRD was bought through Grant (SR/FST/ETII028/2010) from DST, Government of India.


  1. 1.
    Huber, G.W., Iborra, S., Corma, A.: Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem. Rev. 106(9), 4044–4098 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saka, S., Kusdiana, D.: Biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil as prepared in supercritical methanol. Fuel 80(2), 225–231 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gates, B.: Supported metal clusters: synthesis, structure, and catalysis. Chem. Rev. 95(3), 511–522 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sahu, H., Mohanty, K.: Al grafted natural hydroxyapatite for neem oil transesterification: kinetic study at optimal point. Chem. Eng. J. 280, 564–574 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peng, B.-X., Shu, Q., Wang, J.-F., Wang, G.-R., Wang, D.-Z., Han, M.-H.: Biodiesel production from waste oil feedstocks by solid acid catalysis. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 86(6), 441–447 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Margellou, A., Koutsouki, A., Petrakis, D., Vaimakis, T., Manos, G., Kontominas, M., Pomonis, P.: Enhanced production of biodiesel over MgO catalysts synthesized in the presence of poly-vinyl-alcohol (PVA). Ind. Crops Prod. 114, 146–153 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zullaikah, S., Lai, C.-C., Vali, S.R., Ju, Y.-H.: A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil. Bioresour. Technol. 96(17), 1889–1896 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Encinar, J.M., Gonzalez, J.F., Rodríguez-Reinares, A.: Biodiesel from used frying oil. Variables affecting the yields and characteristics of the biodiesel. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44(15), 5491–5499 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dias, A.P.S., Puna, J., Correia, M.J.N., Nogueira, I., Gomes, J., Bordado, J.: Effect of the oil acidity on the methanolysis performances of lime catalyst biodiesel from waste frying oils (WFO). Fuel Process. Technol. 116, 94–100 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wafwoyo, W., Seo, C.W., Marshall, W.E.: Utilization of peanut shells as adsorbents for selected metals. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 74(11), 1117–1121 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu, Z., Wang, N., Tan, J., Chen, J., Zhong, W.: Kinetic and equilibrium of cefradine adsorption onto peanut husk. Desalin. Water Treat. 37(1–3), 160–168 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilson, K., Yang, H., Seo, C.W., Marshall, W.E.: Select metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells. Bioresour. Technol. 97(18), 2266–2270 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shukla, S., Pai, R.S.: Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on dye loaded groundnut shells and sawdust. Sep. Purif. Technol. 43(1), 1–8 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reddy, P.M.K., Mahammadunnisa, S., Ramaraju, B., Sreedhar, B., Subrahmanyam, C.: Low-cost adsorbents from bio-waste for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20(6), 4111–4124 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zeng, D., Liu, S., Gong, W., Wang, G., Qiu, J., Chen, H.: Synthesis, characterization and acid catalysis of solid acid from peanut shell. Appl. Catal. A 469, 284–289 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dai, Y.-M., Chen, K.-T., Wang, Y.-J., Chen, C.-C.: Application of peanut husk ash as a low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl. 5(3), 276 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shang, Y., Jiang, Y., Gao, J.: One-step synthesis of peanut shell-derived solid acid for biodiesel production. Energy Sources A 37(10), 1039–1045 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pornsawan, A., Jintanavasan, P., Kitchaiya, P.: Adsorption of FFA, soap and glycerine in biodiesel using magnesium silicate. Chem. Eng. Trans. 43, 1135–1140 (2015). Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mansir, N., Hin, T.-Y.Y.: Synthesis and characterization of solid heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel from high FFA waste cooking oil. Bayero J. Pure Appl. Sci. 10(1), 62–66 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wells, M., Woods, A., Aurand, L.: Food Composition and Analysis. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ayetor, G.K., Sunnu, A., Parbey, J.: Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera. Alex. Eng. J. 54(4), 1285–1290 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kulkarni, M.G., Gopinath, R., Meher, L.C., Dalai, A.K.: Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Green Chem. 8(12), 1056–1062 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gleysteen, L.F., Deitz, V.: Hysteresis in the physical adsorption of nitrogen on Bone Char and other adsorbents. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 35, 285–307 (1945)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lowell, S., Shields, J.E., Thomas, M.A., Thommes, M.: Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Pore Size and Density, vol. 16. Springer, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao, W., Yang, B., Yi, C., Lei, Z., Xu, J.: Etherification of glycerol with isobutylene to produce oxygenate additive using sulfonated peanut shell catalyst. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49(24), 12399–12404 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Malik, R., Ramteke, D., Wate, S.: Physico-chemical and surface characterization of adsorbent prepared from groundnut shell by ZnCl2 activation and its ability to adsorb colour. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 13, 319–328 (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xie, S., Han, X., Kuang, Q., Zhao, Y., Xie, Z., Zheng, L.: Intense and wavelength-tunable photoluminescence from surface functionalized MgO nanocrystal clusters. J. Mater. Chem. 21(20), 7263–7268 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheng, G., Varanasi, P., Li, C., Liu, H., Melnichenko, Y.B., Simmons, B.A., Kent, M.S., Singh, S.: Transition of cellulose crystalline structure and surface morphology of biomass as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment and its relation to enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomacromol 12(4), 933–941 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abdullah, S., Yusup, S., Ahmad, M.M., Ramli, A., Ismail, L.: Thermogravimetry study on pyrolysis of various lignocellulosic biomass for potential hydrogen production. Int. J. Chem. Biol. Eng. 3(3), 137–141 (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sahu, H., Mohanty, K.: Pseudo-first order reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties study of neem oil esterification using MgO grafted natural hydroxyapatite. RSC Adv. 6(11), 8892–8901 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations