Valorization of Grapefruit Seeds: Cold Press Oil Production
- 131 Downloads
The aims of this study were valorization of grapefruit seeds by producing oil with cold press technique and characterization of the obtained oils.
Control group and enzyme treated seeds were cold pressed in laboratory scale machine, and common physicochemical properties, fatty acid, sterol, tocopherol, flavonoid, phenolic acid, pigment, volatile aromatics compositions of the oils were determined in addition to their sensory descriptive analyses.
It was shown that the oil contains linoleic acid (40%), β-sitosterol (80%) and α-tocopherol (220–320 mg/kg oil) as the major components. Naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, rutin as prominent flavonoids; tr-ferulic and gallic acids as dominant phenolic acids were quantified. Furthermore 26 different (d-limonene, furfural, 3-methylbutanal etc.) volatile aromatics were determined. The oils are shown to be bioactives and aromatics rich samples, but they have strong bitter and astringent taste.
Hence, the oil could only be used to enrich other edible oils and foods for functional purposes, and could be utilised for cosmetic, chemical, energy and other purposes.
KeywordsGrapefruit seed Enzyme treatment Cold pressing Bioactives Aromatics
This study was funded by the TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey), Project No: COST 114O876. The authors thank for the fund. We would like to thank also Frigo-Pak Food Co. (Bursa, Turkey) for supplying the grapefruit seeds used in the study.
- 1.Bachman, J.: Small-scale oilseed processing-value added and processing guide. ATTRA (appropriate technology transfer for rural area), pp. 1–24 (2001)Google Scholar
- 2.Williams, M.A.: Obtaining oils and fats from source material. In: Hui, Y.H. (ed.) Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, pp. 61–1156. Wiley, New York (2005)Google Scholar
- 8.Anonymous: Turunçgiller. Ankara-TURKEY: Turkish Statistical Institute (2014). http://www.tuik.gov.tr. Accessed 15 Jan 2017
- 13.AOAC: Official methods of analysis, method 920.39. Crude fat & oil. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington (2005)Google Scholar
- 14.AOCS: Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. AOCS Press, Champaign (1997)Google Scholar
- 15.ISO: Animal and vegetable fats and oils—determination of unsaponifiable matter—method using diethyl ether extraction. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva (2000)Google Scholar
- 16.ISO 12228: Animal and vegetable fats and oils—determination of individual and total sterols contents, gas chromatographic method. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva (1999)Google Scholar
- 19.García-Villalba, R., Carrasco-Pancorbo, A., Zurek, G., Behrens, M., Bäßmann, C., Segura-Carretero, A., Fernández-Gutiérrez, A.: Nano and rapid resolution liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry to identify and quantify phenolic compounds in olive oil. J. Sep. Sci. 33(14), 2069–2078 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.NIST, NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library: National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Data Program, MD 20899, Gaithersburg (2008)Google Scholar
- 24.McLafferty, F.: Wiley Registry of Mass Spectral Data. 7th edn. CD-ROM (2005) ISBN 978-0471473251Google Scholar
- 25.Minitab, M.S.: Software (Version 16.1.1. Minitab, Inc., State College (2010)Google Scholar
- 26.SPSS: SPSS Professional Statistics (Version 10,1. SPSS Inc., Chicago (1994)Google Scholar
- 28.TFC: Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils, CX-STAN 210. Turkish Food Codex, Ankara (1999)Google Scholar
- 33.Giménez-Bastida, J., González-Sarrías, A., Vallejo, F., Espín, J., Tomás-Barberán, F.: Hesperetin and its sulfate and glucuronide metabolites inhibit TNF-α induced human aortic endothelial cell migration and decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. Food Funct. 7, 118–126 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Tzou-Chi, H.: Biosynthesis of natural aroma compounds. In: Hui, Y. (ed.) Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering—4 Volume Set. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2005)Google Scholar