Advertisement

Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 3101–3114 | Cite as

Modeling and Simulation of Corn Stover Gasifier and Micro-turbine for Power Generation

  • Hoda Abd El-Sattar
  • Salah Kamel
  • Mohamed Ali Tawfik
  • David Vera
  • Francisco JuradoEmail author
Original Paper
  • 314 Downloads

Abstract

This paper focuses on modeling the performance of a small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plant fueled with corn stover pieces (CSP) as very potential biomass resource in Egypt. The developed power plant can be used to satisfy the heat and electricity needs. The proposed power plant performance is simulated using the professional Cycle-Tempo® software. The power plant is divided into three stages; the gasification unit (downdraft fixed bed gasifier and air supply system), gas cleaning and cooling units and the micro-turbine (MT) as an electrical generation unit. In the first stage, the CSP feedstock is converted to producer gas at atmospheric pressure with a reaction temperature about 1028.6 °C, using air as a gasifying agent. The efficiency of gasification process at a regulated air–biomass ratio of 1.5 kg/kg is 77.92% with calorific value (LHV) of 3.87 MJ/kg. Cleaning and cooling stage used to dispose the undesirable gas constitutes such as; tar, flying ash, and etc. The clean gas is passing through the MT as power generator for CHP applications with turbine inlet temperature of 850 °C. Ultimately, the simulation revealed that the CHP overall efficiency of this developed plant is 63.21% providing an electrical power of 94.81 kWel and thermal power of 187.55 kWth.

Keywords

CHP plant Corn stover Downdraft gasifier Cleaning and cooling Cycle-Tempo 

List of Symbols

XOF

Air–biomass ratio

ηCg

Cold gas efficiency (%)

LHVpg

Lower heat value of producer gas

mpg

Mass flow of producer gas (kg/s)

Tf

The gas temperature at the gasifier exit

ηel

Electric efficiency (%)

Pel

Electrical power

cw

Specific heat capacity of water

PCGT

Compressor (gas turbine) power

Qth

Thermal power

PCg

Power consumption of the product gas compression

ηHg

Hot gas efficiency (%)

ΔT

Water temperature

LHVBiomass

Lower heat value of biomass

mBiomass

Mass flow of biomass (kg/s)

Cpg

Specific heat of producer gas

ηCHP

Overall efficiency (%)

PCHP

Overall generated power (kW)

PGT

Gas turbine power

ηG

Generator efficiency (%)

mw

Water mass flow (kg/s)

T0

The temperature of the fuel entering the gasifier

References

  1. 1.
    Khalil, A., Mubarak, A., Kaseb, S.: Road map for renewable energy research and development in Egypt. J. Adv. Res. 1, 29–38 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nakhla, D.A., Hassan, M.G., El Haggar, S.: Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change. Nat. Sci. 5, 678–684 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamdy, Y.: The current situation of Egyptian agricultural wastes‏. In: Proceedings of Anaerobic Treatment of Solid Wastes, vol. 4, pp. 1–5. (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Egypt | Climate Investment Funds: https://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/country/egypt (2017)
  5. 5.
    Said, N., El-Shatoury, S.A., Díaz, L.F., Zamorano, M.: Quantitative appraisal of biomass resources and their energy potential in Egypt. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 24, 84–91 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Food and Agriculture Organization: http://www.fao.org/home/ar/ (2017)
  7. 7.
    Ministry of Environment - EEAA: http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/en-us/home.aspx
  8. 8.
    Atiya, E.A., Morad, M.M., Tawfik, M.A., Wasfy, K.I.: Fabricating and performance evaluating of an experimental prototype of downdraft biomass gasifier. Zagazig J. Agric. Eng. 44, 727–740 (2017)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huber, G.W., Iborra, S., Corma, A.: Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem. Rev. 106, 4044–4098 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paula Peres, A.G., Lunelli, B.H., Maciel FIlho, R.: Application of biomass to hydrogen and syngas production. Chem. Eng. Trans. 32, 589–594 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kumar, A., Jones, D.D., Hanna, M.A.: Thermochemical biomass gasification: a review of the current status of the technology. Energies 2, 556–581 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McKendry, P.: Energy production from biomass (part 3): gasification technologies. Bioresour. Technol. 83, 55–63 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McKendry, P.: Energy production from biomass (part 2): conversion technologies. Bioresour. Technol. 83, 47–54 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pathak, B.S., Patel, S.R., Bhave, A.G., Bhoi, P.R., Sharma, A.M., Shah, N.P.: Performance evaluation of an agricultural residue-based modular throat-type down-draft gasifier for thermal application. Biomass Bioenergy 32, 72–77 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vera, D., Jurado, F., Panopoulos, K.D., Grammelis, P.: Modelling of biomass gasifier and microturbine for the olive oil industry. Int. J. Energy Res. 36(3), 355–367 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vera, D., De Mena, B., Jurado, F., Schories, G.: Study of a downdraft gasifier and gas engine fueled with olive oil industry wastes. Appl. Therm. Eng. 51, 119–129 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dong, L., Liu, H., Riffat, S.: Development of small-scale and micro-scale biomass-fuelled CHP systems—a literature review. Appl. Therm. Eng. 29, 2119–2126 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaikko, J., Backman, J.: Technical and economic performance analysis for a microturbine in combined heat and power generation. Energy 32, 378–387 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pilavachi, P.: Mini-and micro-gas turbines for combined heat and power. Appl. Therm. Eng. 22, 2003–2014 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aravind, P.V., Woudstra, T., Woudstra, N., Spliethoff, H.: Thermodynamic evaluation of small-scale systems with biomass gasifiers, solid oxide fuel cells with Ni/GDC anodes and gas turbines. J. Power Sources 190, 461–475 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vera, D., Jurado, F., Carpio, J.: Study of a downdraft gasifier and externally fired gas turbine for olive industry wastes. Fuel Process. Technol. 92, 1970–1979 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fryda, L., Panopoulos, K.D., Kakaras, E.: Integrated CHP with autothermal biomass gasification and SOFC-MGT. Energy Convers. Manag. 49, 281–290 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kalina, J.: Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC. Appl. Therm. Eng. 31, 2829–2840 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Erlich, C., Fransson, T.H.: Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: experimental study. Appl. Energy 88, 899–908 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    Giuntoli, J., Agostini, A., Edwards, R., Marelli, L.: Solid and gaseous bioenergy pathways: input values and GHG emissions (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Melgar, A., Pérez, J.F., Laget, H., Horillo, A.: Thermochemical equilibrium modelling of a gasifying process. Energy Convers. Manag. 48, 59–67 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karamarkovic, R., Karamarkovic, V.: Energy and exergy analysis of biomass gasification at different temperatures. Energy 35, 537–549 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Di Blasi, C.: Dynamic behaviour of stratified downdraft gasifiers. Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 2931–2944 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zainal, Z.A., Ali, R., Lean, C.H., Seetharamu, K.N.: Prediction of performance of a downdraft gasifier using equilibrium modeling for different biomass materials. Energy Convers. Manag. 42, 1499–1515 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zainal, Z.A., Rifau, A., Quadir, G.A., Seetharamu, K.N.: Experimental investigation of a downdraft biomass gasifier. Biomass Bioenergy 23, 283–289 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    George, J., Arun, P., Muraleedharan, C.: Stoichiometric equilibrium model based assessment of hydrogen generation through biomass gasification. Procedia Technol. 25, 982–989 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gambarotta, A., Morini, M., Zubani, A.: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model for the simulation of the biomass gasification process. Appl. Energy 1–9 (2017)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jarungthammachote, S., Dutta, A.: Equilibrium modeling of gasification: Gibbs free energy minimization approach and its application to spouted bed and spout-fluid bed gasifiers. Energy Convers. Manag. 49, 1345–1356 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lv, P., Xiong, Z., Chang, J., Wu, C., Chen, Y., Zhu, J.: An experimental study on biomass air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed. Bioresour. Technol. 95, 95–101 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang, L., Xu, C.C., Champagne, P.: Overview of recent advances in thermo-chemical conversion of biomass. Energy Convers. Manag. 51, 969–982 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dejtrakulwong, C., Patumsawad, S.: Four zones modeling of the downdraft biomass gasification process: effects of moisture content and air to fuel ratio. Energy Procedia 52, 142–149Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pérez, J.F., Melgar, A., Benjumea, P.N.: Effect of operating and design parameters on the gasification/combustion process of waste biomass in fixed bed downdraft reactors: an experimental study. Fuel 96, 487–496Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Budhathoki, R.: Three zone modeling of downdraft biomass gasification: equilibrium and finite kinetic approach (2013)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Babu, B.V., Sheth, P.N.: Modeling and simulation of reduction zone of downdraft biomass gasifier: effect of char reactivity factor. Energy Convers. Manag. 47, 2602–2611 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gao, N., Li, A.: Modeling and simulation of combined pyrolysis and reduction zone for a downdraft biomass gasifier. Energy Convers. Manag. 49, 3483–3490 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    El-Sattar, H.A., Kamel, S., Tawfik, M.A., Nasrat, L.S.: Modelling of a fixed bed downdraft gasifier for generating electricity using sawdust in Egypt. Int. J. Power Eng. Energy 7, 702–707 (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    El-Sattar, H.A., Kamel, S., Tawfik, M.A., Vera, D.: Modeling of a downdraft gasifier combined with externally fired gas turbine using rice straw for generating electricity in Egypt. In: Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2016 Eighteenth International Middle East, pp. 747–752 (2017)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bridgwater, A.V.: The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasif ication for power generation. Fuel 74, 631–653 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spearing, S.M., Chen, L.: Micro-gas turbine engine materials and structures‏. In: Singh, J.P. (ed.) Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Chap 2 (1997).  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470294444.ch2
  46. 46.
    Al-Hinai, A., Feliachi, A.: Dynamic model of a microturbine used as a distributed generator. In Proceedings of the Annual Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, pp. 209–213 (2002)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peirs, J., Reynaerts, D., Verplaetsen, F.: A microturbine for electric power generation. Sens. Actuators A 113, 86–93 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grift, J.M., Conradie, R.E., Fransen, S., Verhoeff, F.: Micro gas turbine operation with biomass producer gas. In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, pp. 1–5 (2007)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Camporeale, S.M., Fortunato, B., Torresi, M., Turi, F., Pantaleo, A.M., Pellerano, A.: Part Load performance and operating strategies of a natural gas—biomass dual fuelled microturbine for CHP generation. ASME Turbo Expo. 1–15 (2014)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Prussi, M., Riccio, G., Chiaramonti, D., Martelli, F.: Evaluation of a micro gas turbine fed by blends of biomass producer gas and natural gas, Vol. 1 Aircraft Engine; Ceramics; Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Manufacturing, Materials and Metallurgy; Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery, pp. 595–604 (2008)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liguori, V.: Biomass gas and solid waste gas lean premixed combustion in a 100 kWe MGT: a numerical investigation considering their H2 percentage. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42, 25414–25427 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zornek, T., Monz, T., Aigner, M.: Performance analysis of the micro gas turbine Turbec T100 with a new FLOX-combustion system for low calorific fuels. Appl. Energy 159, 276–284 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Spa, T.: T100 microturbine system. Tech. Descr. T100, 1–17 (2009)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fortunato, B., Camporeale, S.M., Torresi, M., Fornarelli, F., Brunetti, G., Pantaleo, A.M.: A combined power plant fueled by syngas produced in a downdraft gasifier. In: ASME Turbo Expo 2016: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp. 1–13 (2016)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vera, D., Jurado, F., Margaritis, N.K., Grammelis, P.: Experimental and economic study of a gasification plant fuelled with olive industry wastes. Energy Sustain. Dev. 23, 247–257 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Waste to energy companies - Ankur Scientific: https://www.ankurscientific.com/index.html (2018)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of JaénEPS Linares, JaénSpain

Personalised recommendations