Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 8, pp 2273–2283 | Cite as

A New Hybrid System for Reuse of Agro-industrial Wastes of Acerola: Dehydration and Fluid Dynamic Analysis

  • Lina Ramadan
  • Claudio R. Duarte
  • Marcos A. S. BarrozoEmail author
Original Paper


Fruit processing generates a large amount of waste that is generally discarded or underused. However the wastes of some fruits, such as acerola, contain bioactive substances with health promoting properties and potential technological applications. This paper evaluates the performance of a hybrid system composed of a microwave assisted rotary drum for the dehydration of acerola wastes and considers the efficiency of this new system and the product quality (bioactive compounds content). The mixture and segregation processes in the rotary drum induced by differences in moisture content, rotation speed, and filling degree were also evaluated. Good operating conditions for mixture were identified and they were related to the regimes of solids motion in the rotating drum. This study also analyzed the effects of power density and rotation speed on dehydration performance. Conditions with high moisture removal that lead to a product with high bioactive compounds content were also identified.


Acerola Rotary drum Hybrid drying system Fruit wastes 



The authors gratefully thank the Brazilian research funding agencies CAPES, CNPq and FAPEMIG for the financial support.


  1. 1.
    Pommer, C.V., Barbosa, W.: The impact of breeding on fruit production in warm climates of Brazil. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 31(2), 612–634 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cunha, F.G., Santos, K.G., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Machanical extraction of natural dye from Bixa orellanna seeds in spouted bed. Ind. Crops Prod. 45, 279–282 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garcia, G.G., Woolley, E., Rahimifard, S., Colwill, J., White, R., Needham, L.A., Methodology for sustainable management of food waste. Waste Biomass Valor. 8, 2209–2227 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Duzzioni, A.G., Lenton, V.M., Silva, D.I.S., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Effect of drying kinetics on main bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) residue. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48, 1041–1047 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malamis, D., Moustakas, K., Bourka, A., Valta, K., Papadaskalopoulou, C., Panaretou, V., Skiadi, O., Sotiropoulos, A.: Compositional analysis of biowaste from study sites in Greek municipalities. Waste Biomass Valor. 6, 637–646 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balasundram, N., Sundram, K., Samman, S.: Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial byproducts: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem. 99(1), 191–203 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Birt, D.F., Hendrich, S., Wang, W.: Dietary agents in cancer prevention: flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Pharmacol. Ther. 90, 157–177 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pande, H., Kumar, B., Varshney, V.K.: Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of biomass residue (leaves) generated from Bambusa tulda plantations. Waste Biomass Valor. 8, 2349–2362 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silva, D.I.S., Nogueira, G.D.R., Duzzioni, A.G., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Changes of antioxidant constituents in pineapple (Ananas comosus) residue during drying process. Ind. Crops Prod. 50, 557–562 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sebaoui, O., Moussaoui, R., Kadi, H., Michaud, P., Delattre, C.: Kinetic modeling of pectin extraction from wasted citrus lemon L. Waste Biomass Valor. 8, 2329–2337 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silva, P.B., Duarte, C.R., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Dehydration of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) residue in a new designed rotary dryer: effect of process variables on main bioactive compounds. Food Bioprod. Process. 98, 62–70 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Assis, S.A., Lima, D.C., Oliveira, O.M.M.F.: Activity of pectinmethylesterasl, pectin content and vitamin C in acerola fruit at various stages of fruit development. Food Chem. 74, 133–137 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bortolotti, C.T., Santos, K.G., Francisquetti, M.C.C., Duarte, C.R., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Hydrodynamic study of a mixture of West Indian cherry residue and soybean grains in a spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 91, 1871–1880 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barrozo, M.A.S., Costa, S.M., Murata, V.V.: Simultaneous heat and mass transfer between air and soybean seeds in a concurrent moving bed. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 36, 393–399 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mekki, A., Arous, F., Aloui, F., Sayadi, S.: Treatment and valorization of agro-wastes as biofertilizers. Waste Biomass Valor. 8, 611–619 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fernandes, N.J., Ataide, C.H., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Modeling and experimental study of hydrodynamic and drying characteristics of an industrial rotary dryer. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 26, 331–341 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, J., Xi, Y.S., Yu, Y.: Microwave drying characteristics of potato and the effect of different microwave powers on the dried quality of potato. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 219, 500–506 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goksu, E.L., Sumnu, G., Esin, A.: Effect of microwave on fluidized bed drying of macaroni beads. J Food Eng. 66, 463–468 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Torringa, E., Esveld, E., Scheewe, I., Berg, V.B., Bartels, P.: Osmotic dehydration as a pre-treatment before combined microwave-hot-air drying of mushrooms. J. Food Eng. 49, 185–191 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jiang, H., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A.S., Lim, R.X.: Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94, 1827–1834 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silverio, B.C., Santos, K.G., Duarte, C.R., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Effect of the friction, and elastic, and restitution coefficients on the fluid dynamics behavior of a rotary dryer operating with fertilizer. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53, 8920–8926 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grajales, L.M., Xavier, N.M., Henrique, J.P., Thomeo, J.C.: Mixing and motion of rice particles in a rotary drum. Powder Technol. 222, 167–175 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Santos, D.A., Duarte, C.R., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Segregation phenomenon in a rotary drum: experimental study and CFD simulation. Powder Technol. 294, 1–10 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Santos, D.A., Petri, I.J., Duarte, C.R., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Experimental and CFD study of the hydrodynamic behavior in a rotating drum. Powder Technol. 250, 52–62 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nascimento, S.M., Santos, D.A., Barrozo, M.A.S., Duarte, C.R.: Solids holdup in flighted rotating drums: an experimental and simulation study. Powder Technol. 280, 18–25 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chou, S.H., Liao, C.C., Hsiau, S.S.: An experimental study on the effect of liquid content and viscosity on particle segregation in a rotary drum. Powder Technol. 201, 266–272 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barrozo, M.A.S., Henrique, H.M., Sartori, D.J.M., Freire, J.T.: The use of the orthogonal collocation method on the study of the drying kinetics of soybean seeds. J Stored Prod. Res. 42, 348–356 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A.: Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibidic–phosphotungistic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 16, 144–158 (1965)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W.: The determination of flavonoids contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64, 555–559 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dürust, N., Gogan, S., Dürust, Y.: Ascorbic acid and element content of foods of Trabzon (Turkey). J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 2085–2087 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mellmann, J.: The transverse motion of solids in rotating cylinders—forms of motion and transition behavior. Powder Technol. 118, 251–270 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Orsat, V., Yang, W., Changrue, V., Raghavan: G.S.V. Microwave-assisted drying of biomaterials. Food Bioprod. Process. 85, 255–263 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santos, K.G., Lobato, F.S., Lira, T.S., Murata, V.V., Barrozo, M.A.S.: Sensitivity analysis applied to independent parallel reaction model for pyrolysis of bagasse. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 90, 1989–1996 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang, C.H., Lin, H.Y., Chang, C.Y., Liu, Y.C.: Comparisons on the antioxidant properties of fresh, freeze-dried and hot- air- dried tomatoes. J. Food Eng. 77, 478–485 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ozgur, M., Ozcan, T., Akpinar-Bayizit, A., Yilmaz-Ersan, L.: Functional compounds and antioxidant properties of dried green and red peppers. Afric. J. Agric. Res. 6, 5638–5644 (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dorta, E., Lobo, M.G., Gonzalez, M.: Using drying treatments to stabilize mango peel and seed: effect on antioxidant activity. LWT–Food Sci. Technol. 45, 261–268 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringFederal University of UberlândiaUberlandiaBrazil

Personalised recommendations