Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 2045–2055 | Cite as

Influence of Granulated Silico-Manganese Slag on Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Ambient Cured Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Binder

  • S. K. NathEmail author
  • Sanjay Kumar
Original Paper


This work focuses on gainful utilization of low reactive fly ash at ambient temperature into alkali-activated binder with the addition of another industrial waste silico-manganese (SiMn) slag. Granulated SiMn slag (GSS) percentage was gradually increased into fly ash-based reference batch. The influence of slag on reactivity of the blends was monitored by isothermal conduction calorimetry. Reactivity was improved with increasing slag content. The structural reorganizations of the resultant binder were detected by peak shifting in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study. The positional change of the hump in X-ray diffraction analysis was due to structural rearrangement of the binder. The calcium-rich hydrated product formation was increased with slag inclusion. The fly ash-derived geopolymer gel (N–A–S–H) was coexisted with slag activated gel (C–S–H/C–A–S–H), (where N = Na2O, A = Al2O3, C = CaO, S = SiO2, and H = H2O) in the blend matrix. EDX analysis confirmed the variation in Si/Al, Ca/Si, and Na/Al ratios of the binder with the alteration of reaction products. The development of better compressive strength in slag-rich binder attributed with the formation of Ca-rich gel phases.


Fly ash Granulated SiMn slag Alkali-activated cement Reactivity Compressive strength Microstructure 



The authors are grateful to the Director, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India for his kind permission to publish the paper. We would like to thank all raw materials suppliers. The authors also acknowledge the technical support from CSIR-NML staff.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR- National Metallurgical LaboratoryJamshedpurIndia

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