Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1957–1968 | Cite as

Solvothermal Liquefaction of Corn Stalk: Physico-Chemical Properties of Bio-oil and Biochar

  • Sabzoi NizamuddinEmail author
  • Humair Ahmed Baloch
  • Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak
  • Sajid Riaz
  • M. T. H. Siddiqui
  • Pooja Takkalkar
  • M. M. Tunio
  • Shaukat Mazari
  • Abdul Waheed Bhutto
Original Paper


This study investigated the conversion of corn stalk to bio-oil by solvothermal liquefaction using ethanol as a solvent. Effect of reaction temperature, time and solvent to biomass ratio on the yield and the properties of bio-oil and biochar was studied. Analysis of corn stalk and bio-oil were done to determine the surface functional groups, existing bonds and molecular structure of specified compounds. Investigations were done to identify different compounds in bio-oil, the thermal stability, and weight loss kinetics of biochar. Study shows that percentage yield of bio-oil increases with increase in temperature and time, up to a specific level, and then starts declining. Further, the heating value, carbon content, and fixed carbon content of both bio-oil and biochar increased to 30.52, 22.8 MJ/kg, and 66.42 and 61.25%, 26.10 and 27.97% respectively from those (19.55 MJ/kg, 51.12 and 6.36%) of the corn stalk. This study suggests that the bio-oil contained mostly phenolic compounds and its derivatives. Two major DTG peaks were observed at 380 and 620 °C indicating the improvement in thermal stability of the biochar after solvolysis liquefaction process. Investigation results can be very useful in optimizing process parameters for solvothermal liquefaction.


Solvothermal liquefaction Corn stalk Bio-oil Biochar 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabzoi Nizamuddin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Humair Ahmed Baloch
    • 1
  • Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak
    • 2
  • Sajid Riaz
    • 3
  • M. T. H. Siddiqui
    • 1
  • Pooja Takkalkar
    • 1
  • M. M. Tunio
    • 4
  • Shaukat Mazari
    • 3
  • Abdul Waheed Bhutto
    • 3
  1. 1.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceCurtin UniversitySarawakMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringDawood University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Energy and EnvironmentQuaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and TechnologyNawabshahPakistan

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