Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 11, pp 3295–3306 | Cite as

The Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) Bark Solvent Extracts and Pyrolysis Oil

  • Zhiling Wang
  • Luis A. Cáceres
  • Mohammad M. Hossain
  • Saoussen Ben Abdallah
  • Osariemen Ogbeide
  • Zengyu Yao
  • Justin B. Renaud
  • Ian M. ScottEmail author
Original Paper


Wood waste from forestry practices offers an inexpensive source of biomass that can be converted into bioenergy, fuels and value-added chemicals. Balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) bark offers a source of bioactive natural products, such as lignans, separated through solvent extraction (SE). The objectives of the research were: (1) to compare traditional solvent with supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and slow pyrolysis processes to separate and convert chemicals from the bark and (2) to assess the biological activity of the extracts and pyrolysis oils. In vitro biochemical assays were used to measure antioxidant and oxygen radical-scavenging abilities, and glutathione S-transferase and esterase enzyme inhibition. The pyrolysis oil had similar anti-oxidant, radical-scavenging ability and enzyme inhibitory activity to the SE and SFE extracts. Fractionation and mass spectrometry identified catechol and p-coumaryl alcohol in the organic phase of pyrolysis oil. The small phenolic compounds identified offer starting materials for pharmaceutical or insecticide synergist application.


Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Solvent extraction Supercritical fluid extraction Pyrolysis Glutathione S-transferase inhibition Esterase inhibition Antioxidant activity 



Solvent extraction


Supercritical fluid extraction


Raw pyrolysis oil


Glutathione S-transferase


Monoamine oxidase


Glutamic acid decarboxylase


Mechanically fluidized reactor


Colorado potato beetle


S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate




Diethyl maleate


1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical


α-naphthyl acetate


1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene



We recognize the technical support from Dr. Paul A. Charpentier, Western University, supercritical fluid extraction,Tim McDowell, AAFC London, GC-MS analysis and Igor Lalin, AAFC London, CPB rearing. We also thank Dr. John T. Arnason, University of Ottawa, for providing the plant material. This research was partially supported by funding from the China Scholarship Council (CSC), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31470630), the Science and Technology Innovation from ShanXi Agriculture University (2016YJ14) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of ForestryShanxi Agriculture UniversityTaiguChina
  2. 2.London Research and Development CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaLondonCanada
  3. 3.Departments of Biochemistry and ChemistryUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  5. 5.Faculté des Sciences de TunisUnité de Physiologie et Biochimie de la Réponse des Plantes aux Contraintes AbiotiquesTunis El ManarTunisia
  6. 6.Key Laboratory of Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China (Southwest Forestry University)Ministry of EducationKunmingChina

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