Valorization of Capia Pepperseed Flour-I: Spreadable New Products Development
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The aim of this study was to utilize pepperseed flour in spreadable new product development. Two formulations, chocolate type and molasses type, were evaluated. Both formulations included 23.67 and 30.11% pepperseed flour, chocolate liquor or molasses as aroma source, sugar, palm oil, citric acid, potassium sorbate and lecithin as the ingredients. While ash and protein contents were similar, moisture and oil contents were different. Oil separation was observed only in chocolate type. Free acidity and peroxide values were low and below the limits. Some color differences were existed. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were higher in molasses type. Thermal analysis showed that both products were smooth and plastic at room temperature, and crystallizes only below fridge temperatures. In both products, linoleic (43–47%), palmitic (23–24%) and oleic (21–25%) acids were the main fatty acids, together with β-sitosterol (2200–2500 mg/kg), campesterol (350–600 mg/kg), and Δ5-avenasterol (230–550 mg/kg). Also 735.83 and 493.49 mg/kg total tocols were determined, respectively. Sixteen amino acids were quantified in samples, and glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and lysine in chocolate type, and glutamic acid, histidine, leucine and proline in molasses type were in higher concentrations. There were ten minerals quantified, and K, Na, Ca, and Mg were in higher amounts. This study proved that pepperseeds can be valorized in production of healthy, nutritious new products with minimal processing.
KeywordsCapia pepperseed Flour Spreadable Product Composition Quality
This study was funded by FYL-2016-896 project of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The authors thank for the support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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