Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 1323–1331 | Cite as

Use of Wheat Straw Combustion Residues for Removal of Chlorinated Herbicide (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid)

  • Nikhilesh S. Trivedi
  • Rhushikesh A. Kharkar
  • Sachin A. MandavganeEmail author
Original Paper


The work highlights preparation of adsorbents using a common agricultural waste, wheat straw (WS) its characterization and adsorption efficacy. After separation of wheat seeds, whole stem and leaves remain as a waste. WS is used for the preparation of two adsorbents by distinct methods [ash by combustion wheat straw ash (WSA), biochar by pyrolysis i.e. wheat straw char (WSC)]. The synthesized adsorbents (WSA and WSC) are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, CHNS (ultimate analysis), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area technique and Fourier transform infrared technique. XRF analysis confirmed presence of SiO2 (58%), K2O (6.85%), CaO (4.16%) and P2O5 (1.65%) in WPA all of which act as micronutrients to plants, whereas CPC contains carbon along with SiO2 (15%) as major constituent. A progressive increase in BET surface area was noted by change in preparation methods: WSA (37 m2/g) and WSC (96 m2/g). In this manuscript, adsorbents prepared using WS were characterized in detail and their adsorptive abilities were investigated using a commonly used herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), as a representative. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of different operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, initial 2,4-D concentration, contact time and pH. Experimental data were analyzed with Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin isotherm models, among which the Langmuir isotherm model showed the best fit. Pseudo-first-order kinetics and pseudo-second-order kinetics were applied to experimental data and pseudo-second-order kinetics showed the best fit. The adsorption capacity of WSA and WSC was found to be 1.89 and 3.02 mg/g, respectively, whereas equilibrium time was found to be 120, and 240 min, respectively. On the basis of adsorption capacity per hectare dose of WSA is recommended for removal of 2,4-D.


Characterization Micronutrient Ash Char Adsorption 



Authors are thankful to the Science and Engineering Research Board, India for providing research grant (SB/S3/CE/077/2013) to undertake the work. Authors are also thankful to the Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur, Department of Metallurgy VNIT, Nagpur, and Department of Physics Nagpur University, Nagpur for their instrumentation facility.


  1. 1.
    UNFAO, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nkana, J.C.V., Demeyer, A., Verloo, M.G.: Chemical effects of wood ash on plant growth in tropical acid soils. Bioresour. Technol. 63, 251–260 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Basu, M., Pande, M., Bhadoria, P.B.S., Mahapatra, S.C.: Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: a global review. Prog. Nat. Sci. 19, 1173–1186 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trivedi, N.S., Mandavgane, S.A., Mehetre, S., Kulkarni, B.D.: Characterization and valorization of biomass ashes. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23, 1–14 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lehmann, J., Joseph, S.: Biochar for environmental management: an introduction, Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, pp. 1–12. Earthscan Publications, London (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shackley, S., Carter, S., Knowles, T., Middelink, E., Haefele, S., Sohi, S., Cross, A., Haszeldine, S.: Sustainable gasification-biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, part I: context, chemical properties, environmental and health and safety issues. Energy Policy 42, 49–58 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Noreen, S., Bhatti, H.N., Farrukh, Z., Ilays, S., Jamal, M.A.: Continuous fixed bed removal of Novacron Orange P-2R using sugarcane bagasse: prediction of breakthrough curves. Desalin. Water Treat. 57, 12814–12821 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rashid, A., Bhatti, H.N., Iqbal, M., Noreen, S.: Fungal biomass composite with bentonite efficiency for nickel and zinc adsorption: a mechanistic study. Ecol. Eng. 91, 459–471 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tahir, N., Bhatti, H.N., Iqbal, M., Noreen, S.: Bio-molecules composite with peanut hull waste and application for crystal violet adsorption. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 94, 210–220 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shoukat, S., Bhatti, H.N., Iqbal, M., Noreen, S.: Mango stone biocomposite preparation and application for crystal violet adsorption: a mechanistic study. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 239, 180–189 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahmad, T., Rafatullah, M., Ghazali, A., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., Ahmad, A.: Removal of pesticides from water and wastewater by different adsorbents: a review. J. Environ. Sci. Health C 28, 231–271 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dodson, J.R., Hunt, A.J., Budarin, V.L., Matharu, A.S., Clark, J.H.: The chemical value of wheat straw combustion residues. RSC Adv. 1, 523–530 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Budarin, V.L., Shuttleworth, P.S., Dodson, J.R., Hunt, A.J., Lanigan, B., Marriott, R., Milkowski, K.J.: Use of green chemical technologies in an integrated biorefinery. Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 471–479 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Srikanth, S.D., Swapan, K., Ravikumar, B., Rao, D. S., Nandakumar, K., Vijayan, P.: Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler. Biomass Bioenergy 27, 375–384 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khoshnood, M., Azizian, S.: Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticide by graphitic carbon nanostructures prepared from biomasses. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18, 1796–1800 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trivedi, N.S., Mandavgane, S.A., Kulkarni, B.D.: Mustard plant ash: a source of micronutrient and an adsorbent for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23, 1–13 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Demeyer, A., Nkana, J.C.V., Verloo, M.G.: Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview. Bioresour. Technol. 77, 287–295 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trivedi, N.S., Mandavgane, S.A., Utilization of an agro waste, groundnut shell ash, for adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. In: Proceedings International Conference of Advances Chemical Engineering, NITK Surathkal (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marsh, H., Reinoso, F.R.: Activated Carbon. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Njoku, V.O., Foo, K.Y., Hameed, B.H.: Microwave-assisted preparation of pumpkin seed hull activated carbon and its application for the adsorptive removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Chem. Eng. J. 215–216, 383–388 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pavlovic, I., Barriga, C., Hermosin, M. C., Cornejo, J., Ulibarri, M.A.: Adsorption of acidic pesticides 2, 4-D, clopyralid and picloram on calcined hydrotalcite. Appl. Clay Sci. 30, 125–133 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M., Kriz, G.S., Vyvyan, J.R.: Introduction to Spectroscopy, 4th edn, pp. 46–48. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning, Belmont (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deokar, S.K., Mandavgane, S.A.: Rice husk ash for fast removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from aqueous solution. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 33(5), 429–440 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deokar, S.K., Mandavgane, S.A., Kulkarni, B.D.: Behaviour of biomass multicomponent ashes as adsorbents. Curr. Sci. 110, 180–186 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goyne, K., Chorover, J., Zimmerman, A.R., Komarneni, S., Brantley, S.L.: Influence of mesoporosity on the sorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid onto alumina and silica. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 272, 10–20 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pan, Y.-F., Chiou, C.T., Lin, T.-F.: Adsorption of arsenic (V) by iron-oxide-coated diatomite (IOCD). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 17, 1401–1410 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aksu, Z., Kabasakal, E.: Batch adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon. Sep. Purif. Technol. 35, 223–240 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Major uses of pesticides. Ministry of Agriculture (2014)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salman, J.M., Hameed, B.H.: Adsorption of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and carbofuran pesticides onto granular activated carbon. Desalination 256(1), 129–135 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hameed, B.H., Salman, J.M., Ahmad, A.L.: Adsorption isotherm and kinetic modeling of 2, 4-D pesticide on activated carbon derived from date stones. J. hazard. mater. 163(1), 121–126 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Salman, J.M., Njoku, V.O., Hameed, B.H.: Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto banana stalk activated carbon. Chem. Eng. J. 174(1), 41–48 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deokar, S.K., Mandavgane, S.A., Kulkarni, B.D.: Adsorptive removal of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from aqueous solution using bagasse fly ash as adsorbent in batch and packed-bed techniques. Clean Technol. Environ. Policy 18(6), 1971–1983 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Njoku, V.O., Islam, M.A., Asif, M., Hameed, B.H.: Adsorption of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H 3 PO 4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch. J. Environ. manag. 154, 138–144 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trivedi, N.S., Kharkar R.A., Mandavgane S.A.: 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid adsorption on adsorbent prepared from groundnut shell: effect of preparation conditions on equilibrium adsorption capacity. Arab. J. Chem. (2016)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trivedi, N.S., Mandavgane, S.A., Kulkarni, B.D.: Mustard plant ash: a source of micronutrient and an adsorbent for removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Environ. Sci. Pollution Res. 23(20), 20087–20099 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikhilesh S. Trivedi
    • 1
  • Rhushikesh A. Kharkar
    • 1
  • Sachin A. Mandavgane
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations