Improving Polyphenol Extraction from Lemon Residues by Pulsed Electric Fields
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In this contribution, the influence of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) of different intensities (3–9 kV/cm and 0–300 μs) on the extraction of Total Phenols from lemon peel residues by pressing was investigated. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the increase in permeability was determined as 30 pulses of 30 μs. It was determined that the effect of PEF was independent of lemon residue size. The effectiveness of pressing-assisted extraction was evaluated by measuring the Total Phenol Content (TPC), the real antioxidant capacity and the concentrations of the main lemon polyphenols, the flavonones hesperidin and eriocitrin. The variables studied in the extraction were time, pressure applied and intensity of the electric fields. This study concludes that electric field intensity of 7 kV/cm increased the efficiency of polyphenol extraction by 300%, giving maximum values of 84 mg of hesperidin in 100 g FW and 176 mg of eriocitrin in 100 g FW. Thus, it was concluded that PEF provides a new methodology to improve polyphenol extraction with a non-thermal, environment-friendly technology, and this represents a method for increasing economic benefits of industrial processes.
KeywordsLemon waste Phenols Antioxidant Pulsed electric fields (PEF) Pressuring Extraction
The author S. Peiró gratefully acknowledge the financial support of “Talent Empresa (TEM-DG) 2010” Program from AGAUR, Generalitat de Catalunya. The authors would like to thank Michael H. Gordon for his valuable revision of the manuscript.
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