Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 661–670 | Cite as

Different Types of Thermochemical Pretreatment and Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Groundnut Shell

  • Akansha Madhawan
  • Arzoo Arora
  • Jyoti Das
  • Shivani Sharma
  • Arindam Kuila
  • Vinay SharmaEmail author
Original Paper


The present study deals with the comparison of different types of pretreatment (thermo-dilute acid, thermo-dilute alkaline, microwave assisted thermo-dilute acid and microwave assisted thermo-dilute alkaline) of groundnut shell. Based on structural characterization (Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy) and reducing sugar yield, microwave assisted thermo-dilute alkaline pretreatment was found to be most suitable pretreatment option. Further enzymatic hydrolysis process of microwave assisted thermo-dilute alkaline pretreated biomass was optimized using statistical technique. Maximum reducing sugar yield (487.5 mg/g dry substrate) was found at substrate concentration 12%, tween 80 concentration 0.12% and incubation time 48 h. The present study showed that higher reducing sugar can be obtained at high substrate concentration from microwave assisted thermo-dilute alkaline pretreated biomass within shorter incubation time.


Thermochemical pretreatment Microwave assisted pretreatment Structural characterization Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis 



Authors are thankful to Prof. Aditya Shastri, Vice Chancellor, Banasthali University for research facilities and infrastructure.


This work was not supported by any funding authority. It was carried out by our own interest.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they don’t have any conflict of interest in the publication.

Supplementary material

12649_2017_83_MOESM1_ESM.docx (683 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 682 KB)


  1. 1.
    Jin, S., Zhang, G., Zhang, P., Fan, S., Li, F.: High-pressure homogenization pretreatment of four different lignocellulosic biomass for enhancing enzymatic digestibility. Bioresour. Technol. 181, 270–274 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jin, S., Zhang, G., Zhang, P., Li, F., Wang, S., Fan, S., Zhou, S.: Microwave assisted alkaline pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of catalpa sawdust. Bioresour. Technol. 221, 26–30 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tao, X., Li, J., Zhang, P., Nabi, M., Jin, S., Li, F., Wang, S., Ye, J.: Reinforced acid-pretreatment of Triarrhena lutarioriparia to accelerate its enzymatic hydrolysis. Int. J. Hydrog. Energ. 42, 18301–18308 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kshirsagar, S.D., Waghmare, P.R., Loni, P.C., Patil, S.A., Govindwar, S.P.: Dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw, structural characterization and optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions by response surface methodology. RSC Adv. 5, 46525–46533 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akanksha, K., Prasad, A., Sukumaran, R.K., Nampoothiri, M., Pandey, A., Rao, S.S., Parameswaran, B.: Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum biomass for sugar recovery: a statistical approach. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 52, 1082–1089 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McIntosh, S., Vancov, T.: Optimisation of dilute alkaline pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Biomass Bioenerg. 35, 3094–3103 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cai, D., Li, P., Luo, Z., Qin, P., Chen, C., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Tan, T.: Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation. Bioresour. Technol. 211, 117–124 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhu, Z., Simister, R., Bird, S., McQueen-Mason, S.J., Gomez, L.D., Macquarrie, D.J.: Microwave assisted acid and alkali pretreatment of Miscanthus biomass for biorefineries. AIMS Bioeng. 2, 449–468 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, Y., Sun, Z., Ge, X., Zhang, J.: Effects of lignin and surfactant on adsorption and hydrolysis of cellulases on cellulose. Biotechnol. Biofuel. 9, 20 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aguilar-Reynosa, A., Romani, A., Rodríguez-Jasso, R.M., Aguilar, C.N., Garrote, G., Ruiz, H.A.: Microwave heating processing as alternative of pretreatment in second-generation biorefinery: an overview. Energ. Convers. Manag. 136, 50–65 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moodley, P., Kana, E.B.G.: Microwave-assisted inorganic salt pretreatment of sugarcane leaf waste: effect on physiochemical structure and enzymatic saccharification. Bioresource Technol. 235, 35–42 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rorke, D.C.S., Suinyuy, T.N., Kana, E.B.G.: Microwave-assisted chemical pre-treatment of waste sorghum leaves: process optimization and development of an intelligent model for determination of volatile compound fractions. Bioresour. Technol. 224, 590–600 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nathan, V.K., Rani, M.E., Rathinasamy, G., Dhiraviam, K.N., Jayavel, S.: Process optimization and production kinetics for cellulase production by Trichoderma viride VKF3. SpringerPlus 3, 1–12 (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller, G.L.: Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31, 426–428 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Segal, L., Creely, J.J., Martin, A.E., Conrad, C.M.: An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Textile Res. J. 29, 786–794 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang, C., Shan, J., Chen, Y., Zhong, L., Shen, T., Zhu, C., Ying, H.: Organic amine catalytic organosolv pretreatment of corn stover for enzymatic saccharification and high-quality lignin. Bioresource Technol. 232, 222–228 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ethaib, S., Omar, R., Mazlina, M., Radiah, A., Syafiie, S., Harun, M.Y.: Effect of microwave-assisted acid or alkali pretreatment on sugar release from dragon fruit foliage. Int. Food Res. J. 23, S149-S154 (2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ma, H., Liu, W.W., Chen, X., Wu, Y.J., Yu, Z.L.: Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of rice straw by microwave pretreatment. Bioresource Technol. 100, 1279–1284 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kataria, R., Ghosh, S.: NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Saccharum spontaneum for reducing sugars production. Energy Source A 36, 1028–1035 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Agu, O.S., Tabil, L.G., Dumonceaux, T.: Microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment, densification and enzymatic saccharification of canola straw and oat hull. Bioengineering. 4, 1–32 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choi, W., Park, J.Y., Lee, J.P., Oh, Y.K., Park, Y.C., Kim, J.S., Park, J.M., Kim, C.H., Lee, J.S.: Optimization of NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment of empty fruit bunch. Biotechnol. Biofuel. 6, 170 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ioelovich, M., Morag, E.: Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of mild pretreated lignocellulosic biomasses. BioResources. 7, 1040–1052 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jin, S., Zhang, G., Zhang, P., Li, F., Fan, S., Li, J.: Thermo-chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for enhancing saccharification of catalpa sawdust. Bioresour. Technol. 205, 34–39 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nazarpour, F., Abdullah, D.K., Abdullah, N., Motedayen, N., Zamiri, R.: Biological pretreatment of rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production. BioMed Res. Int. (2013). doi: 10.1155/2013/268349
  25. 25.
    Waghmare, P.R., Kadam, A.A., Saratale, G.D., Govindwar, S.P.: Enzymatic hydrolysis and characterization of waste lignocellulosic biomass produced after dye bioremediation under solid state fermentation. Bioresource Technol. 168, 136–141 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang, H., Ye, G., Wei, Y., Li, X., Zhang, A., Xie, J.: Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse with ferric chloride pretreatment and surfactant. Bioresource Technol. 229, 96–103 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mou, H., Wu, S.: Comparison of hydrothermal, hydrotropic and organosolv pretreatment for improving the enzymatic digestibility of bamboo. Cellulose. 24, 85–94 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cui, L., Liu, Z., Si, C., Hui, L., Kang, N., Zhao, T.: Influence of steam explosion pretreatment on the composition and structure of wheat straw. BioResources. 7, 4202–4213 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wei, S.G., Cho, E.J., Lee, D.S., Lee, S.J., Lee, Y.J., Bae, H.J.: Lignocellulose conversion for biofuel: a new pretreatment greatly improves downstream biocatalytic hydrolysis of various lignocellulosic materials. Biotechnol. Biofuel 8, 228 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu, Q., Cheng, K.K., Jhang, J.A., Li, J.P., Wang, G.H.: Statistical optimization of recycledpaper enzymatic hydrolysis for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation via central composite design. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 160, 604–612 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Timung, R., Deshavath, N.N., Goud, V.V., Dasu, V.V.: Effect of subsequent dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis on reducing sugar production from sugarcane bagasse and spent citronella biomass. J. Energy (2016). doi: 10.1155/2016/8506214
  32. 32.
    Saha, B.C., Kennedy, G.J., Qureshi, N., Cotta, M.A.: Biological pretreatment of corn stover with Phlebia brevispora NRRL-13108 for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and efficient ethanol production. Biotechnol. Prog. 33, 365–374 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martinez-Patino, J.C., Romero, I., Ruiz, E., Cara, C., Romero-Garcia, J.M., Castro, E.: Design and optimization of sulphuric acid pretreatment of extracted olive tree biomass using response surface methodology. BioResources 12, 1179–1197 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mkhize, T., Mthembu, L.D., Gupta, R., Kaur, A., Kuhad, R.C., Reddy, P., Deenadayalu, N.: Enzymatic saccharification of acid/alkali pretreated, mill run, and depithed sugarcane bagasse. BioResources 11, 6267–6285 (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Min, B.C., Jampana, B.V.S., Ramarao, B.V.: Enhancement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of fines from recycled paper mill waste rejects. Bioresour. Bioprocess. 2, 40 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akansha Madhawan
    • 1
  • Arzoo Arora
    • 1
  • Jyoti Das
    • 1
  • Shivani Sharma
    • 1
  • Arindam Kuila
    • 1
  • Vinay Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Bioscience & BiotechnologyBanasthali UniversityBanasthaliIndia

Personalised recommendations