A Comparative Biomass Compositional Analysis of Five Algal Species from the Paddy Fields of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, to Determine Their Suitability for Handmade Paper Pulp Formulation
- 81 Downloads
The need for research into the use of alternative raw materials for the production of paper results from the anticipated shortages in the supply of raw-materials to the wood-based paper-industry. Although Burdwan town is vested with different types of algae, literally no work has been done for valorization of such biomass. Start of such bioprocess involves optimization of resource-utilization that is the main topic in this paper.
Burdwan town was surveyed for collection of algae that were identified by morphologic characteristics under the microscope. Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash-content, water-retention-value, total carbohydrate and starch concentration of these algae were determined for assessing their feasibility in handmade-paper production. Element content in these algae was determined from energy-dispersive-X-ray-spectroscopy. Breaking-length and tensile-strength were the two parameters tested to assess hand-made-paper quality obtained from pulp extracted from the collected algae species. Data obtained were statistically evaluated with one-way analysis-of-variance followed by Tukey’s HSD (honest-significant-difference) test. Paper made from pure algae pulp was also tested for inter-fiber bonding with scanning-electron-microscopic-imaging. All experiments were repeated with Eucalyptus sp. pulp (wood) as control to assess the suitability of algal pulp as an alternative to the conventional wood pulp.
Five algal species: Pithophora sp., Lyngbya sp., Hydrodiction sp., Cladophora sp. and Rhizoclonium sp. were collected. Although here were no statistically-significant differences (p = 0.8137) in biomass-compositional values from the studied algae species and Eucalyptus sp. pulp, paper quality parameters (Breaking-length and tensile-strength) varied significantly (p < 0.1, p < 0.5) among them. Hydrodiction sp., besides Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. were established as the most suitable candidates for paper-pulp formulation in terms of high cellulose, hemicelluloses contents and low lignin and silica contents. Paper from pure Hydrodiction sp. pulp was found to have statistically significant (P < 0.05) improved breaking-length and tensile-strength properties compared to that obtained from Lyngbya sp. Paper-pulp characters varied insignificantly among Hydrodiction sp., Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. versus Eucalyptus sp. (wood pulp) whereas statistically significant differences were noticed in paper pulp quality of Pithophora sp. (p < 0.05) and Lyngbya sp. (p < 0.01) with Eucalyptus sp. respectively.
Thus, this paper enlightens (through statistical comparison), the properties of different algae, leading out Hydrodiction sp., Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. to be the most appropriate as start up material (resources) for paper-pulp formulation, in comparison to conventional wood pulp (Eucalyptus sp.).
KeywordsAlgae Pulp Biochemical evaluation Water-retention-value (WRV) Handmade-paper One-way-analysis-of-variance (ANOVA)
The authors acknowledge The Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India for supporting this research work. The authors also thank the Department of Biotechnology, The University of Burdwan for providing adequate lab facility to carry out this research work.
This research was funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India through grant of Woman Scientist B postdoctoral fellowship (Grant No.: DST/Disha/SoRF-PM/061/2013) to Dr. Piyali Mukherjee.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors state that there are no conflicts of interest.
- 9.Chisholm, H. (ed.): Burdwan. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1911)Google Scholar
- 11.Desikachary, T.V.: Cyanophyta. ICAR, New Delhi (1959)Google Scholar
- 12.Prescott, G.W.: Algae of western Great Lakes area. Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, Koenigstein (1962)Google Scholar
- 13.Komárek, J., Anagnostidis, K.: Cyanoprokaryota, 2: Oscillatoriales. In: Büdel, B., Krienitz, L., Gärtner, G., Schagerl, M. (eds.) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, vol. 19, pp. 1–759. Elsevier Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, München (2005)Google Scholar
- 17.Hall, M.B.: Determination of starch, including maltooligosaccharides, in animal feeds: comparison of methods and a method recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study. J. AOAC Int. 92(1), 42–49 (2009)Google Scholar
- 18.Venditti, R., Hubbe, M.: Lab manual: measuring paper strength. The Science of Papermaking and Paper Recycling: A Research Experience for Students, North Carolina State University. https://cnr.ncsu.edu/fb/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/04/testingpaper.pdf (2002)
- 19.David, H.:. Duxbury: Statistical methods for psychology. PWS-KENT Publishers, Boston (2002)Google Scholar
- 21.Sakai, M., Seto, T., Kaneko, M., Hada, M., Kinomoto, T.: Method of producing pulp from green algae. Patent no. US5500086A (1996)Google Scholar
- 22.Stanford, E.C.: Algin, a new substance derived from several common species of marine algae. Pharm. J. 13, 1019 (1883)Google Scholar
- 25.Mobarak, F., El-Ashmawy, A., Augustin, H.: Hemicelluloses as additive in papermaking. Cellul. Chem. Technol. 11, 109–113 (1977)Google Scholar
- 26.Anjos, O., Santos, A., Simoes, R.: Influence of hemicelluloses content on the paper quality produced with Eucalyptus globules fibers. In: Proceedings of Progress in Paper Physics Seminar, Norway, Trondheim, 21 a 24 de Junho, pp. 50–52 (2004)Google Scholar
- 27.Norman, B.: Web forming. In: Paulapuro, H. (ed.) Papermaking part 1, stock preparation and wet end, pp. 232–233. Fapet Oy, Helsinki (2000)Google Scholar
- 29.Buttel, H., Jayme, G.: Determination and significance of water retention value (WRV) of various bleached pulps: relationship between WRV and other pulp properties. Wochbl. Papierfabr. 96(6), 180 (1968)Google Scholar
- 31.Mane, P.C., Kadam, D.D., Chaudhari, R.D.: Biochemical responses of some freshwater algal species to selenium: a laboratory study. Central Eur. J. Exp. Biol. 2(4), 27–33 (2013)Google Scholar
- 32.Atik, C., Ates, S.: Mass balance of silica in straw from the perspective of silica reduction in straw pulp. Bioresources. 7(3), 3274–3282 (2012)Google Scholar
- 34.Rothpfeffer, C.: From wood to waste and waste to wood aspects on recycling waste products from the pulp mill to the forest soil. Doctoral thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae ISSN1652-6880, ISBN 978-91-576-7382-4. 83 (2007)Google Scholar
- 35.Simmonds, F. A., Chidester, G. H.: Elements of wood fiber structure and fiber bonding. Wood Fiber Products Research. FPL5 (1963)Google Scholar
- 36.Korotkova, E., Pranovich, A., Warna, J., Salmi, T., Murzin, D. Y., Willfor, S.: Lignin isolation from spruce wood with low concentration aqueous alkali at high temperature and pressure: influence of hot-water pre-extraction. Green Chem. 17, 5058–5068 (2015). doi: 10.1039/C5GC01341K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Donald, A., Jenkins, L.: Use of environmental scanning electron microscope for observation of the swelling behaviour of cellulosic fibres. Scanning. 19(2), 92–97 (1997)Google Scholar
- 41.Milner, H.W.: The chemical composition of algae. In: Burlew, J.S. (ed.) Algae culture from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, Washington, D. C. (1953)Google Scholar
- 42.Chakravarty, S., Santra, S.C.: Biochemical composition of eight benthic algae collected from Sunderbans. Indian J. Mar Sci. 37(3), 329–332 (2008)Google Scholar
- 44.Howard, R. C., Jowsay, C. J.: Effect of cationic starch on the tensile strength of paper. J. Pulp Paper Sci. 15(6), J225 (1989)Google Scholar
- 46.Arancon, R.N.: The situation and prospects for the utilization of coconut wood in Asia and the pacific. Asia-pacific forestry sector outlook study ii working paper series working paper no. Apfsos ii/wp/2009/15, 1–45 (2009)Google Scholar
- 47.Lourenço, A.F., Gamelas, J.A.F., Ferreira, P.J.: Increase of the filler content in papermaking by using a silica-coated PCC filler. Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 29(2), 242–247 (2014)Google Scholar