Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 75–83 | Cite as

Effect of Minimizing d-Limonene Compound on Anaerobic Co-digestion Feeding Mixtures to Improve Methane Yield

  • A. CarvalhoEmail author
  • R. Fragoso
  • J. Gominho
  • E. Duarte
Original Paper


The purpose of this work was to assess the enhancement of the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge by the addition of orange peel as co-substrate. In this experimental study, an evaluation of the co-digestion process in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor was carried out under mesophilic conditions (37 ± 0.2 °C) during an operation time up to 315 days. All trials were performed at a hydraulic retention time of 15 days and the AD reactor was fed daily with a mixture of sewage sludge and orange peel pulp, previously prepared. The organic loading rate was kept at 1.80 ± 0.31 g VS L−1 day−1 in all trials. A reference scenario (T0), mono-digestion, was performed using sewage sludge as substrate (primary sludge and activated sludge, 40:60, v/v). Thereafter, two different anaerobic co-digestion trials were carried out, one with pre-treated orange peel (T1) and the other with reduced d-limonene content (T2). Trials with pre-treated orange peel (T1 and T2) led to two- and threefold improvements in biogas and methane yields, compared with the reference scenario (T0). Furthermore, the reduction of d-Limonene content (T2) increased the methane yield by around 70% compared with T1. Therefore, it was proved that the sieving pre-treatment is effective to avoid the inhibitory effect of d-limonene.


Anaerobic co-digestion Municipal sludge Orange peel d-Limonene Methane yield Inhibition 



This work was supported by the Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF) research unit (UID/AGR/04129/2013); and Centro de Estudos Florestais (CEF) (PEst-OE/AGR/UI0239/2014).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Carvalho
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Fragoso
    • 1
  • J. Gominho
    • 2
  • E. Duarte
    • 1
  1. 1.Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), School of AgricultureUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Forest Research Centre, School of AgricultureUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal

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